Part II(a): Major Structural Elements

Structure Guidelines for DAISY/NISO
Last Revised: September 10, 2005

This section provides guidance on marking up the major structures of books. These structures are the items normally listed in the traditional printed table of contents. A table of contents may not show as many levels as are contained in the main body of the book, but it is a good place to start when identifying the major structures. It is important to think of the book as being made up of "front matter," "body matter," and "rear matter." It is also critical to understand the notion of nested levels in a book.

In this section, the major structures are addressed in the order in which they would normally be encountered when reading a book. Only the most commonly-occurring major structures (e.g., dedication, table of contents, part, chapter, section, appendix, etc.) are discussed here. However, the procedures described apply universally to major structures regardless of their name. For example, in a collection of letters grouped by year, each division by year would be equivalent to a part and each letter would be treated like a chapter. See the expanded table of contents for a list of the topics covered here.

At a minimum, the first level and the associated heading must be identified. In addition, properly nested levels are a minimum requirement for correct XML markup.

Levels

Think of a very simple book that contains chapters, an appendix, and an index. Each chapter, the appendix, and the index would be identified as the highest level (level1). Sections within the chapters would be identified as the second highest level (level2) and sub-sections would be identified as the third level (level3) in the hierarchy. The index might be divided into the alphabetic divisions "A," "B," "C," etc. These alphabetic divisions would fall at level2 and, together with the other levels, would create a strict hierarchy. This hierarchy can extend to a maximum of six levels (level6). This hierarchy provides direct and easy navigation by the end user to the book's major structures and provides a detailed hierarchical road map of the book.

In Part 1 it was explained that a second method uses a single <level> tag to mark all levels, with differences between the levels defined by nesting hierarchy or alternatively, the "depth" attribute. Go to Alternative Markup later in this Part for additional information.

Throughout Part 2 of the Structure Guidelines, the "Syntax" section provides a list of common attributes and child elements for the element being defined. Following the syntax, a valid example is provided.

Syntax:

<level1>
    <pagenum>...</pagenum>
    <h1>...</h1>
    <level2>...</level2>
    <doctitle>...</doctitle>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <covertitle>...</covertitle>
    <bridgehead>...</bridgehead>
    <p>...</p>
    <list>...</list>
    <dl>...</dl>
    <div>...</div>
    <blockquote>...</blockquote>
    <img>...</img>
    <imggroup>...</imggroup>
    <poem>...</poem>
    <linegroup>...</linegroup>
    <byline>...</byline>
    <dateline>...</dateline>
    <epigraph>...</epigraph>
    <table>...</table>
    <address>...</address>
    <line>...</line>
    <author>...</author>
    <prodnote>...</prodnote>
    <sidebar>...</sidebar>
    <note>...</note>
    <a>...</a>
    <cite>...</cite>
    <samp>...</samp>
    <kbd>...</kbd>
</level1>

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005:

In these guidelines, the tags <level1> + <h1>, <level2> + <h2>, etc., are used throughout, but <level> + <hd> may be used, for instance, if more than six levels of nesting are desired. See the section Alternative Markup of Levels for details.

Divisions

Many times there are structures that a producer will not want to tag as major navigation points. Generally, these are structures such as dedications, epigraphs, and such that are not identified by a heading. These objects can still be identified as major structures by calling them divisions (<div>), but they will not be included in the NCX and would thus not be directly accessible by the end user.

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005: A <div> must be contained within a <level> or <level1> ... <level6> element.

NOTE: At least some of the major structures described in this section are needed for all six types of digital talking book (audio with title element only to full text with no audio). In DTBs that do not include the full text, only a few block and inline elements (prodnote, note, noteref, and sidebar) will be used. DTBs created with full text will use a wider range of tags described in the remainder of Part 2.

Below is the minimum tag set required for a DAISY/NISO DTB. Preceding this the xml declaration and doctype definition must appear.

Example:


<dtbook>
    <head>
    </head>
    <book>
        <bodymatter>
            <level1>
                <p>(paragraph tags or any block level element)</p>
            </level1>
        </bodymatter> 
    </book>
</dtbook>


About Class Attributes

Class attributes are optional. In the examples below, class attributes are used consistently to identify the type of material being marked up, for instance, <lic class="pagenum">23</lic>. Without the class attribute, this example would be: <lic>23</lic>.

Class attributes, when used, must be lower case


Information Object: Front matter

Definition: One of the three major divisions of the interior of a book, the front matter is comprised of preliminary pages which serve as a guide to the contents and nature of the book. Front matter may include:

Bibliographic Reference

Overview: Within the front matter of a book, in most cases only objects with headings should be identified using a level tag and its associated heading tag. A preface would normally be a major structure that an end user would want to directly access so it should be marked as a level with the associated heading. Other items without a heading, such as the dedication, should be marked as divisions (<div>) within a level element.

Syntax: frontmatter may contain only the following child elements:

<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>...</doctitle>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <covertitle>...</covertitle>
    <level1>...</level1>
    <level>...</level>  
</frontmatter>

NOTE: Either <level1> through <level6> OR <level> may be used, they may not be used together.

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005:


Information Object: Doctitle

Definition: Identifies the title of this book.

Markup: Doctitle should be the first element in the book and can be used to quickly identify each book. If the book is structured to contain front matter, doctitle must be the first element inside the front matter. It serves the same function as the title printed on the cover of the print book and should contain the same information. It may be followed by opening announcements contained in a producer's note which would contain such information as author, publisher, copyright notice, etc. The information included in the producer's note and the order in which it is presented is generally specified by the producing agency. The exact contents of the title page are included separately, as indicated in the following section. See Information Object: Title Page

When a book contains a title which is abbreviated on the cover, with the full title presented on the title page, <covertitle> should be used to mark up the abbreviated title, and <doctitle> to mark up the full title as shown on the title page.

Syntax:

<doctitle>...</doctitle>

Example:


    <doctitle>Reading for Success</doctitle>

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005: The element <covertitle> has been added, to mark up an abbreviated title as it appears on the cover of the book.


Information Object: Docauthor

Definition: Identifies each author, editor, etc. of the book.

Markup: As with doctitle, docauthor will ordinarily appear both at the very beginning of the book and on the title page.

Syntax:

<docauthor>...</docauthor>

Example:


    <docauthor>Roberta P. Stevenson</docauthor>
    <docauthor>R. William Ipswitch</docauthor>


Note that both doctitle and docauthor are both valid if placed outside of the level structure

"About the DAISY DTB"

Organizations should include in each book being produced a description of how the DAISY DTB functions. This can be a very brief explanation of the structure and if, for example, it is possible to go to pages or navigate by pages.


Front matter structure

Many objects in a book's front matter will not have headings, such as the title page, dedication and acknowledgments. There are basically two approaches to structuring this content:

  1. A generic level element wraps all front matter, within which each information object is contained in a <div> element
  2. Each information object is contained within its own level element

In the second approach, each information object will appear in the NCX. This is the approach presented below.


Information Object: Title Page

Definition: The title page presents the full title of the book, the name of the author, editor or translator and the name and location of the publishing house. If the book is a new edition of a work previously published, the number of the edition may also appear on the title page following the title. Additional items such as publishing year and colophon sometimes appear on the title page.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: The title page is included in the front matter, within a level tag.

The title of the book should be marked with the <doctitle> tag; and each author, editor, etc. with the <docauthor> tag. The <doctitle> and <docauthor>, if they appear as the first elements of <frontmatter> do not need to be repeated here. If the title of the book is abbreviated on the cover (e.g., a subtitle is omitted), the full title will be marked up in the title page with the tag <doctitle>. The remaining contents of the title page are most easily managed by the end user if the separate items are marked up as paragraphs using <p> and </p>.

Syntax:

<level1 class="title_page">
    <doctitle>...</doctitle>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Example 1:


<frontmatter>
    <covertitle>Don't Sweat the Small Stuff... and It's All Small
        Stuff</covertitle>
    <docauthor>Richard Carlson, Ph.D.</docauthor>
    <level1 class="title_page">
        <doctitle>Don't Sweat the Small Stuff... and It's All Small 
             Stuff: Simple Ways to Keep the Little Things from Taking
         Over Your Life.</doctitle>
        <p>Hyperion</p>
        <p>New York</p>
    </level1>
    ...
</frontmatter>

Example 2:


<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Don't Sweat the Small Stuff... and It's All Small 
        Stuff: Simple Ways to Keep the Little Things from Taking
        Over Your Life.</doctitle>
    <docauthor>Richard Carlson, Ph.D.</docauthor>
    <level1 class="title_page">
       <p>Hyperion</p>
        <p>New York</p>
    </level1>
    ...
</frontmatter>


Information Object: Acknowledgments

Definition: A formal declaration of acknowledgment by the author in which persons and/or institutions are thanked for their part in the creation of the text. Acknowledgments can form a separate page or can be combined with the preface.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: The acknowledgment page is included in the front matter (unless it falls at the back of the book, in which case it is included in the rear matter) and is marked with a level or level1 tag if there is a heading. Otherwise, it should be marked with a div tag within a level element.

Syntax:

<level1 class="acknowledgments">
    <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Example:


    <level1 class="acknowledgments">
        <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
        <p>In any collection, the editors' first debt is to the 
        contributors, without whose talent and cooperation the book 
        could not exist. We thank them for their enthusiasm, 
        conscientiousness, and in many cases, advice.</p >
        <p>We are especially thankful to Jeanne Heifetz and Jonathan 
        Rosen, who have been extraordinarily generous and helpful in
        their suggestions.</p>
    </level1>


Information Object: Dedication

Definition: A formal offering or dedication of a text by the author to one or more persons or institutions.

Markup: The dedication page is included in the front matter and is marked with a level or level1 tag. If there is no heading associated with it, it should be marked with a div.

Syntax:

<level1 class="dedication">
    <h1>Dedication</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Example:


<level1 class="dedication">
    <h1>Dedication</h1>
    <p>For Digger, Magrath and Poppy - as always</p>
</level1>


Information Object: Preface

Definition: The preface is used by the author or publisher to explain the content, origin and/or purpose of the book to the reader.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: The preface is to be included in the front matter and is marked with a level, level1 or level2 tag, depending on the structure of the front matter. Other prefatory material such as introductions, forewords, editor's notes, translator's notes, etc. should be marked up in the same manner as a preface.

Syntax:

<level1 class="preface">
    <h1>Preface</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Example:


<level1 class="preface">
    <h1>Preface</h1>
    <p>Certain authors write with such vitality that literary coteries 
    grow up around the characters of their imagination. The
    "Pickwickians", the "Jane-ites", the "Dickensians" are typical
    of such groups. Lewis Carroll's "Alice" books have a world
    following and the devotees of "Pooh" recognize each other almost
    upon sight. Most of these enthusiasms are based upon two or more
    titles by the same author. There is one enthusiasm, however, the
    fellowship of Rat and Mole and Mr. Toad, that stems from one
    single book - The Wind in the Willows.</p>
</level1>


Definition: The table of contents provides information to the reader about the main sections of the book: front matter, text divisions and back matter including the index. It includes the title and the beginning page number of each section of the book. In a volume consisting of chapters by different authors, the name of each author may be given in the table of contents with the title of the chapter.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: The printed table of contents is to be included in the front matter and is most often marked with a level1 tag. The table of contents should be considered a nested list and each item in the table of contents should be marked as a list item. If page numbers are provided for the items listed, each item and each page number should be marked as separate "list item components" using the lic tag. The class attribute on lic specifies what type of list item component each one is ("entry" and "pagenum" in the example below).

Note that the "type" attribute in <list> is required. See Information Object: Lists for additional information about marking up lists.

Syntax:

<level1 class="print_toc">
    <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
    <list>
        <li><lic class="entry">First Item</lic> <lic class="pagenum">1</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">Second Item</lic> <lic class="pagenum">23</lic></li>
    </list>
</level1>

Example:


<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum page="front" id="p-vi">vi</pagenum>
  <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
  <list class="toc" type="pl">
    <li><lic class="entry" id="p_vi">CHAPTER 1 Preparing to Read for 
      Success</lic>
      <lic class="pagenum">1</lic>
      <list class="toc_chapter" type="pl">
        <li><lic class="entry">Getting Ready to Read This Book</lic>
          <lic class="pagenum">1</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">Why Read a Book to Learn How to Read a 
          Book?</lic> <lic class="pagenum">2</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">Final Check</lic> <lic class="pagenum">
          14</lic></li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li><lic class="entry">CHAPTER 2 Previewing Reading Selections</lic>
      <lic class="pagenum">15</lic>
      <list class="toc_chapter" type="pl">
        <li><lic class="entry">Previewing Reading Selections</lic>
      <lic class="pagenum">15</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">How to Preview</lic> <lic 
      class="pagenum">18</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">Final Check</lic> <lic class="pagenum">
      32</lic>
    </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
</level1>


Information Object: Body Matter

Definition: Body Matter, the second of the three major divisions of a book, consists of the text proper. It is the content per se that represents the author's thesis or story. The body of a book is often divided into chapters and further subdivided into one or more levels of subheadings such as sections and subsections. Sometimes the text material is logically divided into sections larger than chapters with the chapters grouped into parts which are usually numbered. The body sometimes concludes with either epilogues, afterwords or conclusions.

Bibliographic Reference

Overview: In the body of the book all major structures should be marked in a strict hierarchy and level tags and their associated headings should be used for identification.

Markup: bodymatter serves primarily as a container for a variety of structures and is commonly subdivided into a number of levels.

Syntax: bodymatter may contain only the following child elements:

<bodymatter>
    <level1>...</level1>
    <level>...</level>  
</bodymatter>

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005: Block-level elements such as <div> are not permitted as child elements of <bodymatter>.


Information Object: Part

Definition: A part is a logical division of text material; it is often a section larger than chapters into which chapters are grouped. Each part is normally numbered and given a part title. The part number and title may appear on the page preceding the first chapter. Chapters within parts are most commonly numbered consecutively through the book rather than starting anew with chapter one for each new part.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Parts, when present, are the structures at the highest level in the body of a book and are thus marked with level1 tags. If a book is divided into parts which are further divided into chapters, the chapters are marked with level2 tags.

Note: To ensure accurate navigation, the markup at the beginning of a part must follow a precise order. The order should always be: level1, pagenum (if used), heading. For example, a part might start on page 1 which contained only the part heading and a full page picture. The order of the markup would be: level1, pagenum 1, heading. The image (if included) would follow the heading.

Syntax:

<level1 class="part">
    <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Part 1</h1>
    <level2 class="chapter">
        ...
    </level2>
</level1>

Example:


<level1 class="part">
  <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
  <h1>Part 1 Perfection and Imperfection: A Trilogy on a
    Panda's Thumb</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_2" page="normal">2</pagenum>
    <h2>1 - The Panda's Thumb</h2>
    <p>Few heroes lower their sights in the prime of their lives;
      triumph leads inexorably on, often to destruction. Alexander wept
      because he had no new worlds to conquer; Napoleon, overextended,
      sealed his doom in the depth of a Russian winter.</p>
    ...
  </level2>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_27" page="normal">27</pagenum>
    <h2>2 - Senseless Signs of History</h2>
    <p>Words provide clues about their history when etymology does not 
      match current meaning.</p>
    ...
  </level2>
    ...
</level1>
<level1 class="part">
  <pagenum id="page_46" page="normal">46</pagenum>
  <h1>Part 2 Darwiniana</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_47" page="normal">47</pagenum>
    <h2>4 - Natural Selection and the Human Brain: Darwin 
      vs. Wallace</h2>
    <p>In the south transept of Chartres cathedral, the most stunning of
      all medieval windows depicts the four evangelists as dwarfs sitting
      upon the shoulders of four old testament prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.</p>
    ...
  </level2>
  ...
</level1>


Information Object: Chapter

Definition: The chapter is the most common division of most prose works. In a printed book, chapters customarily begin on a new page and the chapter display (heading) usually consists of a chapter number and chapter title which are generally listed in the book's table of contents. The chapter display (the first page of the chapter in the print) can also contain an epigraph in addition to the chapter number and title. In books consisting of chapters contributed by different authors, chapter numbers are sometimes omitted; however, the author's name is usually given in the display.

A chapter can be divided into smaller divisions most commonly called sections. This occurs most often in textbooks and technical and scholarly publications.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Chapters are included in the body matter of the book and are marked with a level1 tag unless the book is divided into parts in which the chapters are grouped. In the latter case the parts would be marked with level1 tags and the chapters with level2 tags. (see also: Information Object: Part)

Note: To ensure accurate navigation, the markup at the beginning of a chapter must follow a precise order. The order should always be: level, pagenum (if used), heading. That way, if an end user navigates to the chapter (i.e., the level tag) they will then hear the page number followed by the chapter heading. If they navigate to pagenum, they will still hear the page number and heading. For example, a chapter might start on page 1 which contained only the chapter heading and a full page picture. The order of the markup would be: level, pagenum 1, heading. The image (if included) would follow the heading.

Syntax:

<level1 class="chapter">
  <h1>Chapter</h1>
  <level2 class="section">
    ...
  </level2>
</level1>

Example:


<level1 class="chapter">
<pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 1 The River Bank</h1>
    <p>The Mole had been working very hard all morning, spring cleaning his 
    little home. First with brooms, then with dusters; then on ladders and steps 
    and chairs with a brush and a pail of whitewash; till he had dust in his throat 
    and eyes, and splashes of whitewash all over his black fur, and an aching back 
    and weary arms. Spring was moving in the air above and in the earth below and 
    around him, penetrating even his dark and lowly little house with its spirit 
    of discontent and longing.</p>
</level1>
<level1 class="chapter">
<pagenum id="page_22" page="normal">22</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 2 The Open Road</h1>
    <p>...</p>
    ...
</level1>


Information Object: Section, Subsection, and Lower Levels of the Hierarchy

Definition: Sections are inserted by the author or editor in prose works where the chapters are long and the material complex. Sections and/or subheadings in the text function as guides to the reader. Most scholarly works require only one level of subheading throughout. Scientific and technical works frequently require further subdivisions.

When a section of text is subdivided, there should be at least two subsections and in some works the number of sections will vary from chapter to chapter, and the levels of subdivision may vary as well.

Sections and subsections may be numbered or unnumbered. Especially in scientific and technical works, the numbering of sections and subsections provides an easy reference to the reader. In print books, unnumbered sections and further subdivisions are indicated by font size and various forms of emphasis such as bolding or the use of italics.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Sections and subsections of chapters are included in the body matter of the book and are marked with level2, level3, or level4 tags, etc., depending on where they fall in the hierarchy.

Note in the example below that the level and heading tags include a class attribute of the same name as the type of division being tagged (class="chapter", "section", or "subsection"). When books are divided below the subsection level, some creativity is required to find suitable names for those lower levels to distinguish among them.

Syntax:

<level2 class="section">
    <h2>Chapter 5</h2>
    <level3 class="subsection">
        <h3>Metadata for Mary</h3>
        ...
    </level3>
</level2>

Complete syntax:

<level1 class="part">
  <h1>Part One: Standards</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <h2>Chapter 3: Core Services</h2>
    <level3 class="section">
      <h3>Circulation Systems</h3>
      <level4 class="subsection">
        <h4>Loan Periods</h4>
        <level5>
          <h5>Overdue Notices</h5>
          ...
        </level5>
        ...
      </level4>
      ...
    </level3>
    ...
  </level2>
  ...
</level1>

Example:

 
       <level1 class="chapter">
       <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
           <h1>Chapter 1 People as a Basic Resource</h1>
           <level2 class="section">
           <pagenum id="page_2" page="normal">2</pagenum>
               <h2>Introduction</h2>
               <p>Operating managers face unprecedented advances in 
               technology...around the world.</p>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Demographic Trends</h3>
                   <p>America's population is changing dramatically. 
                   On average... at the height of the baby boom.</p>
                   ...
               </level3>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Socioeconomic Changes</h3>
                   <p>Socioeconomic changes are also having tremendous impact 
                   on organizations...productively.</p>
                   ...
               </level3>
           </level2>
           <level2 class="section">
           <pagenum id="page_7" page="normal">7</pagenum>
               <h2>The History of Human Resource management</h2>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Early Organization</h3>
                   <p>Management of society and organizations in ancient 
                   Rome 2000 years ago...several assumptions.</p>
                   ...
               </level3>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>The Industrial Revolution</h3>
                   <p>In the early 1800's, Western Europe and North America 
                   began to change from agricultural...</p>
                   ...
               </level3>
           </level2>
       </level1>


Information Object: Rear Matter

Definition: The last of the three main divisions of a book, the rear matter (also referred to as back matter, end matter or reference matter) is the division of material that immediately follows the body. Rear matter is usually comprised of some or all of the following parts, which may be presented in the following order:

Bibliographic Reference

Overview: The rear matter may contain many different major structures and these should be identified as levels with their associated headings.

Markup: Rear matter serves primarily as a container for a variety of structures and is commonly subdivided into a number of levels.

Syntax: rearmatter may contain only the child elements level1 or level:

<rearmatter>
    <level1>...</level1>
    <level>...</level>  
</rearmatter>

New in DAISY/NISO, Release 2005: Block-level elements such as <div> are not permitted as child elements of <rearmatter>.


Information Object: Appendix

Definition: One or more appendices appear in some books to provide the reader with further clarification or explanation of matters discussed in the text but which are not essential parts of the text. The content of appendices can include, for example, texts of source documents, surveys and/or questionnaires, and lists or tables of supplementary information.

An appendix is most commonly found as part of the rear matter of a book, although in some cases, an appendix may be placed at the end of a chapter if it is essential to the understanding of that chapter.

When there are two or more appendices in a book they are numbered like chapters (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.) or they are designated by letters (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) Appendices are usually titled.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Appendices are included in rear matter and are generally marked up with a level1 tag. If there is a separate section entitled "Appendices" within which a number of appendices are grouped, the section should be tagged as a level1 and the individual appendices as level2.

Syntax:

<level1 class="appendix">
    <h1>Appendix A</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Example:

 <level1 class="appendix">
       <pagenum id="page_345" page="normal">345</pagenum>
           <h1>Appendix 1, The Mails</h1>
           <p>Between 1867 and 1869 a number of changes were made in British and
           ...Halifax mail.</p>
           <level2 class="section">
               <h2> American Mail via New York</h2>
               <p>The first regular transatlantic mail began in July 1840 
               in accordance with...to Boston via Halifax.</p>
               ...
           </level2>
           <level2 class="section">
           <pagenum id="page_346" page="normal">346</pagenum>
               <h2>Halifax Mail</h2>
               <p>Halifax had served as a mail depot since 1840, when the 
               Cunard Line...January 1868.</p>
               ...
           </level2>
       </level1>
       <level1 class="appendix">
       <pagenum id="page_347" page="normal">347</pagenum>
           <h1>Appendix 2, The Scheme</h1>
           <p>During the 1860's, successive attempts were made to centralize 
           control of...British Army.</p>
           ...
       </level1>


Information Object: Glossary

Definition: Glossaries are usually found in technical works such as manuals and are intended for the use of the general reader who may be unfamiliar with some of the terminology in the body of the work. Words to be defined in a glossary are arranged in alphabetical order, each on a separate line, followed by its definition.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Glossaries form part of the rear matter of a work and are marked with a level1 tag. The glossary terms and their definitions follow the markup used for definition lists.

See Block Elements: Information Object: List for a more complete discussion of this topic.

The Glossary may be subdivided alphabetically in which case each alphabetic division would be marked with a lower level tag.

Syntax:

<level1 class="glossary">
    <h1>Glossary</h1>
    <dl>
        <dt>... first term</dt>
        <dd>... definition of first term</dd>
        <dt>... second term</dt>
        <dd>... definition of second term</dd>
    </dl>
</level1>

Example:

 <level1 class="glossary">
       <pagenum id="page_831" page="normal">831</pagenum>
           <h1>Glossary</h1>
           <p>For unfamiliar terms used in the definitions below, look for 
           entries elsewhere in the glossary...</p>
           <level2 class="alphabetic_division ">
               <h2>A</h2>
               <dl>
                   <dt>AA, Aas.</dt>
                   <dd>Abbreviation for author's alterations(s) used in 
                   correcting proof.</dd>
                   <dt>access</dt>
                   <dd>In computer terminology, the ability to reach and make use 
                   of electronically stored data.</dd>
                   ...
               </dl>
               ...
           </level2>
       </level1>


Information Object: Bibliography

Definition: A bibliography is a list of books and other references used by an author most commonly in scholarly works. It is usually placed in the rear matter of a book before the index. Some bibliographical lists are placed at the ends of chapters to which they apply, particularly in textbooks.

Bibliographies may take a number of forms:

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: A bibliography occurring at the end of a book is in the rear matter and is marked with a <level1> tag. A bibliography may also occur at the end of a chapter, in which case it is regarded as one section of that chapter and is marked at the same level as a section. There may be alphabetic or other divisions which would be marked one level lower than the bibliography itself. The contents of a bibliography are generally marked up as a list and the individual entries are marked with the <cite> tag. In addition, <author> and <title> tags may be used within the cite tag.

Syntax:

<level1 class="bibliography"> 
    <h1>Bibliography</h1>
    <list>...</list>
</level1>

Example 1: Bibliography as part of the rear matter at the end of a book.

 <level1 class="bibliography">
           <h1>Works by Isak Dinesen</h1>
           <level2 class="section">
               <h2>Books</h2>
               <list type="pl">
                   <li><cite><author>Dinesen, Isak</author>.
                   <title>Syv fantastiske Forteollinger</title>. 
                   Copenhagen: Reitzels, 1937.</cite></li>
                   <li><cite><author>Dinesen, Isak</author>.
                   <title>Out of Africa</title>. London: Putnam,
                   1937.</cite></li>
               </list>
           </level2>
           <level2 class="section">
               <h2>Essays</h2>
               <list type="pl">
                   <li><cite><author>Blixen, Karen,
                   [Osceola]</author>. <title>"Eneboerne."</title>
                   Tilskueren, August 1907, pp.609-35.</cite></li>
                   <li><cite><author>[Osceola]</author>.
                   <title>"Familien de Cats."</title> Tilskueren, January
                   1909, pp. 1-19.</cite></li>
               </list>
           </level2>
       </level1>

Example 2: Bibliography at the end of a chapter in a textbook.

 <level1 class="chapter">
       <h1>Chapter 20 Human Development</h1>
           <level2 class="section">
               <h2>Human Embryo at 3 Weeks Postovulation</h2>
               <p>The period of the embryo is characterized by rapid
               growth...external form.</p>
               ...
           </level2>
           <level2 class="bibliography">
               <h2>Selected Readings</h2>
               <list type="pl">
                   <li><cite><author>Arey, L.</author> 1965.
                   <title>Developmental Anatomy</title>. 7th ed. Saunders.
                   Philadelphia.</cite></li>
                   <li><cite><author>Boving. B.G.</author> 1965.
                   <title>Anatomy of Reproduction</title>. In J.P.
                   Greenhill...</cite>
               </li>
               ...
               </list>
           </level2>
       </level1>


Information Object: Index

Definition: An index provides the reader with the page or pages numbers of pertinent words or statements within the body of the text.

Indexes usually include both proper-name and subject entries at a minimum. If the material is complex two indices are prepared: one of persons only and one of subjects and other proper names. Some indices (e.g. poetry) may require a subject index, and index of titles and first lines.

Indexes are comprised of entries: the principal subdivision of an index. It consists of a heading which identifies the subject of the entry; and a locator which tells the reader where to find material pertaining to the subject. In most cases, it is a page number or sequence of page numbers but it may also be a section number, chapter or paragraph number.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup: Indices form part of the rear matter of a work and are marked with a level1 tag. The index may be subdivided alphabetically in which case each alphabetic division is marked with a lower level heading. The index entries follow the markup used for nested lists.

See Block Elements: Information Object: List

To make an index as useful as possible in a DTB, links should be included from each page reference in the index to the page specified.

Syntax:

<level1 class="index">
    <h1>Index</h1>
    <level2 class="alphabetic_division">
        <h2>A</h2>
        <list>
            <li>...</li>
            <li>...</li>
        </list>
    </level2>
</level1>

Example:

 <level1 class="index">
       <pagenum page="normal" id="pp197">197</pagenum>
           <h1 class="index" >Index</h1>
           <level2 class="alphabetic-division">
               <h2>A</h2>
               <list type="ul" class="index">
                   <li>About-Point technique, 
                   <a href="#p55">55</a></li>
                   <li>Acronym, <a href="#p116">116</a></li>
                   <li>Action plans for good reading, 
                   <ahref="#p5">5</a> </li>
                   <li>Affixes, <a href="#p132">132-134</a></li>
                   <li>Antonym, finding word meaning through context, 
                   <a href="#p126">126</a></li>
                   <li>Application level thinking, 
                   <a href="#p89">89-90</a></li>
                   <li>Association, for improved memory, 
                   <a href="#p117">117</a></li>
                   <li>Attack plan, word, 
                   <a href="#p134">134</a></li>
                   <li>Audience, communicating through good writing to, 
                   <a href="#p141">141</a>, 
                   <a href="#p155">155</a></li>
               </list>
           </level2>
           <level2 class="alphabetic-division">
               <h2>B</h2>
               <list type="ul" class="index">
                   <li>Bookmark, Question Mark, <a href="#p28">28</a></li>
                   <li>Brainstorming, for writing narrative, <a href="#p76">76-78</a></li>
                   ...
               </list>
           </level2>
           ...
       </level1>


Alternative Markup of Levels

This section demonstrates markup with an alternative to the use of the level1-level6 hierarchy of tags, to identify the major structures of a book and the h1-h6 tags to mark the headings of those structures. An alternative to using this markup would be to use the <level> tag along with an optional (but strongly recommended) attribute called "depth," which indicates the absolute level of the structure being tagged. An <hd> tag identifies the heading inside each of these levels. Whereas the level1-level6 tags can only mark a total of six levels, the level tag can be used recursively; that is, it can be used to mark any number of levels.

This option is provided for future use when software becomes available that allows the effective use of the recursive structuring technique to mark up documents.

Markup: <level> should be used recursively to identify all structural elements in the book.

Syntax:

<level depth="n">
  <hd>...</hd>
    ...
</level>

Example:


<level depth="1" class="part">
    <hd>Part 1...</hd>
    <level depth="2" class="chapter">
        <hd>Chapter 1...</hd>
        <level depth="3" class="section">
            <hd>Section 1...</hd>
            ...
        </level>
    </level>
</level>

Copyright 2005 DAISY Consortium