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DAISY Consortium Logo - Link to Home PagePart II(a): Major Structural Elements

DAISY 3 Structure Guidelines
Last Revised: June 4, 2008

This section provides guidance on marking up the major structures of books. These structures are the items normally listed in the traditional printed table of contents. A table of contents may not show as many levels as are contained in the main body of the book, but it is a good place to start when identifying the major structures. It is important to think of the book as being made up of "front matter," "body matter," and "rear matter." It is also critical to understand the notion of nested levels in a book.

In this section, the major structures are addressed in the order in which they would normally be encountered when reading a book. Only the most commonly-occurring major structures (e.g., dedication, table of contents, part, chapter, section, appendix, etc.) are discussed here. However, the procedures described apply universally to major structures regardless of their name. For example, in a collection of letters grouped by year, each division by year would be equivalent to a part and each letter would be treated like a chapter. See the Expanded Table of Contents for a list of the topics covered here.

At a minimum, the first level and the associated heading must be identified. In addition, properly nested levels are a minimum requirement for well-formed XML markup.

Levels

Think of a very simple book that contains chapters, an appendix, and an index. Each chapter, the appendix, and the index would be identified as the highest level (level1). Sections within the chapters would be identified as the second highest level (level2) and sub-sections would be identified as the third level (level3) in the hierarchy. The index might be divided into the alphabetic divisions "A," "B," "C," etc. These alphabetic divisions would fall at level2 and, together with the other levels, would create a strict hierarchy. This hierarchy can extend to a maximum of six levels (level6). This hierarchy provides direct and easy navigation by the end user to the book's major structures and provides a detailed hierarchical road map of the book.

In Part 1 it was explained that a second method uses a single <level> tag to mark all levels, with differences between the levels defined by nesting hierarchy or alternatively, the "depth" attribute. Go to Alternative Markup later in this Part for additional information.

Throughout Part 2 of the Structure Guidelines, the "Syntax" section provides a list of common attributes and child elements for the element being defined. Following the syntax, a valid example is provided.

Syntax

<doctitle>...</doctitle>
<level1>
    <pagenum>...</pagenum>
    <h1>...</h1>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <covertitle>...</covertitle>
    <level2>...</level2>
    <bridgehead>...</bridgehead>
    <p>...</p>
    <list>...</list>
    <dl>...</dl>
    <div>...</div>
    <blockquote>...</blockquote>
    <img>...</img>
    <imggroup>...</imggroup>
    <poem>...</poem>
    <linegroup>...</linegroup>
    <byline>...</byline>
    <dateline>...</dateline>
    <epigraph>...</epigraph>
    <table>...</table>
    <address>...</address>
    <line>...</line>
    <author>...</author>
    <prodnote>...</prodnote>
    <sidebar>...</sidebar>
    <note>...</note>
    <a>...</a>
    <cite>...</cite>
    <samp>...</samp>
    <kbd>...</kbd>
</level1>

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard

In these guidelines, the tags <level1> + <h1>, <level2> + <h2>, etc., are used throughout, but <level> + <hd> may be used, for instance, if more than six levels of nesting are required.

NOTE: Either numbered (<level1> through <level6>) OR unnumbered (<level>) level tags may be used, but they must not be used together.

See the section Alternative Markup of Levels for details.

Divisions

Many times there are structures that a producer will not want to tag as major navigation points. Generally, these are structures such as dedications, epigraphs, and such that are not identified by a heading. These objects can still be identified as major structures by calling them divisions (<div>), but they will not be included in the NCX and would thus not be directly accessible by the end user.

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard: A <div> must be contained within a <level> or <level1> ... <level6> element.

NOTE: At least some of the major structures described in this section are needed for the three types of DAISY books (see The DAISY Digital Talking Book in Part I of these Guidelines). In DTBs that do not include the full text, only a few block and inline elements (prodnote, note, noteref, and sidebar) might be used. DTBs created with full text may use a wider range of tags as described in this part of the DAISY Structure Guidelines.

Below is the minimum tag set required for a DAISY/NISO DTB. Preceding this the XML declaration and doctype definition must appear.

Examples

Example 1


<dtbook>
    <head>
    </head>
    <book>
        <bodymatter>
            <level1>
                <p>(paragraph tags or any block level element)</p>
            </level1>
        </bodymatter>
    </book>
</dtbook>


About Class Attributes

Class attributes are optional. In the examples below, class attributes are used consistently to identify the type of material being marked up, for instance, <lic class="pagenum">23</lic>. Without the class attribute, this example would be: <lic>23</lic>.

Class attributes, when used, must be lower case.


Information Object: Front Matter

Definition

One of the three major divisions of the interior of a book, the front matter is comprised of preliminary pages which serve as a guide to the contents and nature of the book. The first element in front matter must be <doctitle>. Front matter may include:

Bibliographic Reference

Overview

Within the front matter of a book, in most cases only objects with headings should be identified using a level tag and its associated heading tag. A preface would normally be a major structure that an end user would want to directly access so it should be marked as a level with the associated heading. Other items without a heading, such as the dedication, should be marked as divisions (<div>) within a level element.

Syntax

<frontmatter> may contain only the following child elements:

<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>...</doctitle>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <covertitle>...</covertitle>
    <level1>...</level1> 
      OR 
    <level>...</level>
</frontmatter>

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard:

Examples

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page 1 from Balance and Motion (1-58892-027-0) by Delta Education Page 2 from Balance and Motion (1-58892-027-0) by Delta Education

Pages 1-2 from Balance and Motion (1-58892-027-0) by Delta Education

Sample Code:

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<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Balance and Motion</doctitle>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDA3K23">1</pagenum>
        <h1>Balance and Motion</h1>
        <img src="images/thruout/p001-001.png" width="854" 
            height="972" alt="A metal toy of a clown balancing on 
            a ball"/>
        <p>Developed at <strong>Lawrence Hall of Science</strong> 
            University of California at Berkeley</p>
        <p>Published and Distributed by <strong>Delta 
            Education</strong></p>
        <p>© 2007 by The Regents of the University of California. All 
            rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 
            or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or 
            mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by 
            any information storage and retrieval system, without 
            permission in writing from the publisher.</p>
        <p>California Edition</p>
        <p>542-0051</p>
        <p>ISBN 10: 1-59821-027-0</p>
        <p>ISBN 13: 978-1-59821-027-9</p>
        <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QUE 12 11 10 09 08 07 06</p>
    </level1>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDA4EUP">2</pagenum> 
        <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>Make It Balance! 3</li>
            <li>Push or Pull? 11</li>
            <li>Things That Spin 16</li>
            <li>Rolling, Rolling, Rolling! 21</li>
            <li>Strings in Motion 28</li>
            <li>Move It, But Don't Touch It 33</li>
            <li>Tools and Machines 38</li>
            <li>Glossary 43</li>
            <li>Index 45</li>
        </list>
        <img src="images/thruout/p002-001.png" width="634" 
                height="696" alt="Children forming a human pyramid"/>
    </level1>
</frontmatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

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<frontmatter> is a NIMAS-required element.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Balance and Motion</doctitle>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDA3K23">1</pagenum>
        <h1>Balance and Motion</h1>
        <img src="images/thruout/p001-001.png" width="854" 
            height="972" alt=""/>
        <p>Developed at <strong>Lawrence Hall of Science</strong> 
            University of California at Berkeley</p>
        <p>Published and Distributed by <strong>Delta 
            Education</strong></p>
        <p>© 2007 by The Regents of the University of California. All 
            rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 
            or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or 
            mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by 
            any information storage and retrieval system, without 
            permission in writing from the publisher.</p>
        <p>California Edition</p>
        <p>542-0051</p>
        <p>ISBN 10: 1-59821-027-0</p>
        <p>ISBN 13: 978-1-59821-027-9</p>
        <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QUE 12 11 10 09 08 07 06</p>
    </level1>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDA4EUP">2</pagenum> 
        <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>Make It Balance! 3</li>
            <li>Push or Pull? 11</li>
            <li>Things That Spin 16</li>
            <li>Rolling, Rolling, Rolling! 21</li>
            <li>Strings in Motion 28</li>
            <li>Move It, But Don't Touch It 33</li>
            <li>Tools and Machines 38</li>
            <li>Glossary 43</li>
            <li>Index 45</li>
        </list>
        <img src="images/thruout/p002-001.png" width="634" 
                height="696" alt=""/>
    </level1>
</frontmatter>

Information Object: Doctitle

Definition

Identifies the title of this book.

Markup

<doctitle> must be the first child element of frontmatter. It serves the same function as the title printed on the cover of the print book and should contain the same information. It may be followed by opening announcements contained in a producer's note which would contain such information as author, publisher, copyright notice, etc. The information included in the producer's note and the order in which it is presented is generally specified by the producing agency. The exact contents of the title page are included separately, as indicated in the following section. See Information Object: Title Page

When a book contains a title that is abbreviated on the cover, with the full title presented on the title page, <covertitle> should be used to mark up the abbreviated title, and <doctitle> to mark up the full title as shown on the title page.

Syntax

<doctitle>...</doctitle>

Examples

Example 1


    <doctitle>Reading for Success</doctitle>

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard: The element <covertitle> has been added, to mark up an abbreviated title as it appears on the cover of the book.

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page i from Investigations in Number, Data, and Space (0-328-30995-8) by Pearsons Scott Foresman

Page i from Investigations in Number, Data, and Space (0-328-30995-8) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Investigations in Number, Data, and Space®</doctitle>
    <level1>
        <h1>Investigations in Number, Data and Space<sup>®</sup></h1>
        <p>Student Activity Book</p>
        <imggroup>
            <caption><cite><title>Parrot Fire</title> Kris 
                Northern</cite></caption>
            <img src="images/thruout/pfire.png" alt="Fractal Pattern" 
                height="291" width="263"/>
            <caption>"Rather than zoom into the fractal you can zoom 
                into the edge of it and continually find the same 
                pattern repeating itself much like the shoreline of a 
                lake viewed from a plane."­-<strong>Kris 
                Northern</strong></caption>
        </imggroup>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

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<doctitle> is a NIMAS-required element.

While <doctitle> is not explicitly required by the NIMAS Technical Specifications, it is required by the definition of the <frontmatter> element.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Investigations in Number, Data, and Space®</doctitle>
    <level1>
        <h1>Investigations in Number, Data and Space<sup>®</sup></h1>
        <p>Student Activity Book</p>
        <imggroup>
            <caption><strong><em>Parrot Fire</em></strong> Kris 
                Northern</caption>
            <img src="images/thruout/pfire.png" height="291" 
                width="263" alt=""/>
            <caption>"Rather than zoom into the fractal you can zoom 
                into the edge of it and continually find the same 
                pattern repeating itself much like the shoreline of a 
                lake viewed from a plane."­-<strong>Kris 
                Northern</strong></caption>
        </imggroup>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

Information Object: Covertitle

Definition

Identifies the abbreviated title of the book.

Markup

When a book contains a title that is abbreviated on the cover, and a full title presented on the title page, <covertitle> should be used to mark up the abbreviated title, and <doctitle> to mark up the full title as shown on the title page.

Covertitle, rather than the full title or doctitle, is often found on the book spine

Syntax

	<covertitle>...</covertitle>
	

Examples

Example 1

	
	<doctitle>An Invitation To Fly - Basics for the Private Pilot</doctitle>
	<docauthor>...</docauthor>
	<covertitle>An Invitation To Fly</covertitle>
	
	

Information Object: Docauthor

Definition

Identifies each author, editor, etc. of the book.

Markup

As with doctitle, docauthor will ordinarily appear both at the very beginning of the book and on the title page.

Syntax

<docauthor>...</docauthor>

Examples

Example 1


    <docauthor>Roberta P. Stevenson</docauthor>
    <docauthor>R. William Ipswitch</docauthor>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page 1 from D'Nealian Handwriting (0-328-21205-9) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Page 1 from D'Nealian Handwriting (0-328-21205-9) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>D'Nealian Handwriting</doctitle>
    <docauthor>Donald Neal Thurber</docauthor>
    <level1>
        <h1>D'Nealian® Handwriting 5 Nonconsumable</h1>
        <p>Written by Donald Neal Thurber</p>
        <p>Pearson Scott Foresman</p>
        <p><strong>Editorial Offices:</strong> Glenview, Illinois . 
            Parsippany, New Jersey . New York, New York</p>
        <p><strong>Sales Offices:</strong> Boston, Massachusetts . 
            Duluth, Georgia . Glenview, Illinois . Coppell, Texas . 
            Sacramento, California . Mesa, Arizona</p>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

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<docauthor> is a NIMAS-optional element.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:

Note: There is no appropriate NIMAS-required substitute for <docauthor>, as the content enclosed by the element would not be included if only using NIMAS-required elements.


<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>D'Nealian Handwriting</doctitle>
    <level1>
        <h1>D'Nealian® Handwriting 5 Nonconsumable</h1>
        <p>Written by Donald Neal Thurber</p>
        <p>Pearson Scott Foresman</p>
        <p><strong>Editorial Offices:</strong> Glenview, Illinois . 
            Parsippany, New Jersey . New York, New York</p>
        <p><strong>Sales Offices:</strong> Boston, Massachusetts . 
            Duluth, Georgia . Glenview, Illinois . Coppell, Texas . 
            Sacramento, California . Mesa, Arizona</p>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

Note that both doctitle and docauthor are valid if placed outside of the level structure.

"About this DAISY DTB"

Organizations should include in each book being produced a description of how the DAISY DTB functions. This can be a very brief explanation of the structure, for example, the maximum heading depth, highest page number of the book (if present), and optionally, page numbers of important reference sections, such as an index.


Front matter structure

Many objects in a book's front matter will not have headings, such as the title page, dedication and acknowledgments. There are basically two approaches to structuring this content:

  1. A generic level element wraps all front matter, within which each information object is contained in a <div> element
  2. Each information object is contained within its own level element

In the second approach, each information object will appear in the NCX. This is the approach presented below.


Information Object: Title Page

Definition

The title page presents information such as the full title of the book, the name of the author, editor or translator and the name and location of the publishing house. If the book is a new edition of a work previously published, the number of the edition may also appear on the title page following the title. Additional items such as publishing year and colophon sometimes appear on the title page.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

The title page is included in the front matter, within a level tag.

The title of the book should be marked with the <doctitle> tag; and each author, editor, etc. with the <docauthor> tag. They do not have to be repeated here, however, if the title page immediately follows <doctitle> and <docauthor> after the opening of <frontmatter>. The remaining contents of the title page are most easily managed by the end user if the separate items are marked up as paragraphs using <p> and </p>.

Syntax

<level1 class="title_page">
    <doctitle>...</doctitle>
    <docauthor>...</docauthor>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1



<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Don't Sweat the Small Stuff... and It's All Small
         Stuff: Simple Ways to Keep the Little Things from Taking
         Over Your Life.</doctitle>
    <covertitle>Don't Sweat the Small Stuff... and It's All Small
        Stuff</covertitle>
    <docauthor>Richard Carlson, Ph.D.</docauthor>
    <level1 class="title_page">
        <p>Hyperion</p>
        <p>New York</p>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>


Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page 1 from Air and Weather (1-59821-026-2) by Delta Education

Page 1 from Air and Weather (1-59821-026-2) by Delta Education

Sample Code:

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<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Air and Weather</doctitle>
    <level1 class="title_page">
        <pagenum id="IDALFGP">1</pagenum>
        <img src="images/thruout/p001-001.png" width="1152" 
            height="891" alt="A cloudy sky as the sun sets."/>
        <h1>Air and Weather</h1>
        <p>Developed at <strong>Lawrence Hall of Science,</strong> 
            University of California at Berkeley</p>
        <p>Published and Distributed by <strong>Delta 
            Education</strong></p>
        <p>© 2007 by The Regents of the University of California. All 
            rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 
            or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or 
            mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by 
            any information storage and retrieval system, without 
            permission in writing from the publisher.</p>
        <p>California Edition</p>
        <p>542-0050</p>
        <p>ISBN 10: 1-59821-026-2</p>
        <p>ISBN-13: 978-1-59821-026-2</p>
        <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QUE 12 11 10 09 08 07 06</p>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

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Title page is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.


<frontmatter>
    <doctitle>Air and Weather</doctitle>
    <level1 class="title_page">
        <pagenum id="IDALFGP">1</pagenum>
        <img src="images/thruout/p001-001.png" width="1152" 
                height="891" alt=""/>
        <h1>Air and Weather</h1>
        <p>Developed at <strong>Lawrence Hall of Science,</strong> 
            University of California at Berkeley</p>
        <p>Published and Distributed by <strong>Delta 
            Education</strong></p>
        <p>© 2007 by The Regents of the University of California. All 
            rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 
            or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or 
            mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by 
            any information storage and retrieval system, without 
            permission in writing from the publisher.</p>
        <p>California Edition</p>
        <p>542-0050</p>
        <p>ISBN 10: 1-59821-026-2</p>
        <p>ISBN-13: 978-1-59821-026-2</p>
        <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QUE 12 11 10 09 08 07 06</p>
    </level1>
    <!-- ... -->
</frontmatter>

Information Object: Acknowledgments

Definition

A formal declaration of acknowledgment by the author in which persons and/or institutions are thanked for their part in the creation of the text. Acknowledgments can form a separate page or can be combined with the preface.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

The acknowledgment page is included in the front matter (unless it falls at the back of the book, in which case it is included in the rear matter) and is marked with a level or level1 tag if there is a heading. Otherwise, it should be marked with a div tag within a level element.

Syntax

<level1 class="acknowledgments">
    <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


    <level1 class="acknowledgments">
        <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
        <p>In any collection, the editors' first debt is to the
        contributors, without whose talent and cooperation the book
        could not exist. We thank them for their enthusiasm,
        conscientiousness, and in many cases, advice.</p >
        <p>We are especially thankful to Jeanne Heifetz and Jonathan
        Rosen, who have been extraordinarily generous and helpful in
        their suggestions.</p>
    </level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page 144 from Sidewalks (0-328-21486-8) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Page 144 from Sidewalks (0-328-21486-8) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<level1 class="acknowledgments">
    <pagenum id="IDSELIE">144</pagenum>
    <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>Illustrations</h2>
        <p><strong>Opener:</strong> Jim Steck; <strong>2, 7, 
            20­27</strong> Margeaux Lucas; <strong>2, 54</strong> 
            Steven Mach; <strong>3, 72­79 </strong>Melanie Siegel; 
            <strong>12­19</strong> Leslie Harrington; 
            <strong>28</strong> Susan Tolonen; <strong>34­37</strong> 
            Holli Conger; <strong>38­45, 140</strong> Albert Lorenz; 
            <strong>46­54</strong> Lindy Burnett; <strong>58­63, 
            80­81, 144</strong> Jim Steck; <strong>64­71, 139</strong> 
            Ronnie Rooney; <strong>84, 90­97</strong> Chris Lensch; 
            <strong>98­105</strong> Remy Simard; <strong>124­
            131</strong> Suzanne Beaky</p>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Photographs</h2>
        <p><em>Every effort has been made to secure permission and 
            provide appropriate credit for photographic material. 
            The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to 
            correct errors called to its attention in subsequent 
            editions.</em></p>
        <p><em>Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the 
            property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson 
            Education.</em></p>
        <p><em>Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), 
            Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R), Background 
            (Bkgd).</em></p>
        <p><strong>Opener:</strong> (CL) ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis, 
            (BR) Getty Images; <strong>1</strong> ©Tom Stewart/
            Corbis; <strong>3</strong> ©Thomas Ropke/Corbis; 
            <strong>5</strong> ©Terry Vine/Getty Images; <strong>6
            </strong> ©BananaStock/SuperStock; <strong>8</strong> 
            (C) Getty Images, (BL) ©Ed Bock/Corbis; <strong>9</strong> 
            (CR) ©Blend Images/Getty Images, (TL) ©Chuck Savage/
            Corbis, (BL) ©BananaStock/SuperStock; <strong>10</strong> 
            (TL, BR) Jupiter Images, (TR) ©Ryan McVay/Getty Images; 
            <strong>11</strong> (TR, CC) ©Andre Jenny/Alamy Images; 
            <strong>12</strong> ©Jason Horowitz/Getty Images; 
            <strong>14</strong> ©Panoramic/Getty Images; 
            <strong>16</strong> ©Andre Jenny/Alamy Images; <strong>
            18</strong> ©Linda Matlow/Alamy Images; <strong>31
            </strong> ©Stockbyte; <strong>57</strong> ©Randy Faris/
            Corbis; <strong>59</strong> ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis; 
            <strong>82</strong> ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis; <strong>83
            </strong> Getty Images; <strong>108</strong> (BR, BL) S. 
            T. Yiap/Alamy Images; <strong>109</strong> Getty Images; 
            <strong>110</strong> (TR) Jason McConathey/©The Chocolate 
            Farm, Denver, CO, (BR) Jupiter Images; <strong>111
            </strong> ©RubberBall/ SuperStock; <strong>112</strong> 
            ©Dennis MacDonald/PhotoEdit; <strong>113</strong> Getty 
            Images; <strong>114</strong> ©Lisa Pines/Getty Images; 
            <strong>115</strong> ©Yellow Dog Productions/Getty 
            Images; <strong>116</strong> Jason McConathey/©The 
            Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO; <strong>117</strong> (T) T. S. 
            Webster/©The Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO, (BR, BC, BL) 
            Jason McConathey/©The Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO; <strong>
            118</strong> ©Thomas Ropke/ Corbis; <strong>120</strong> 
            ©Dex Images/Corbis; <strong>121</strong> BananaStock; 
            <strong>122</strong> Getty Images; <strong>123</strong> 
            (T) ©Tom Stewart/Corbis, (T) ©Royalty-Free/Corbis; 
            <strong>132</strong> (T, BC) Jupiter Images, (C) TongRo 
            Image Stock, (T) Thinkstock; <strong>133</strong> (B, TR) 
            ©David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; <strong>134</strong> 
            ©RubberBall/SuperStock; <strong>136</strong> Jupiter 
            Images; <strong>137</strong> ©Jason Horowitz/Getty Images; 
            <strong>138</strong> ©David Young-Wolf/ PhotoEdit; 
            <strong>142</strong> Getty Images</p>
    </level2>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Acknowledgements is not an element, optional or required. This is meant solely as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks. This example is valid NIMAS code and is identical to the preceding DAISY markup example.

    	
	
<level1 class="acknowledgments">
    <pagenum id="IDSELIE">144</pagenum>
    <h1>Acknowledgments</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>Illustrations</h2>
        <p><strong>Opener:</strong> Jim Steck; <strong>2, 7, 
            20­27</strong> Margeaux Lucas; <strong>2, 54</strong> 
            Steven Mach; <strong>3, 72­79 </strong>Melanie Siegel; 
            <strong>12­19</strong> Leslie Harrington; 
            <strong>28</strong> Susan Tolonen; <strong>34­37</strong> 
            Holli Conger; <strong>38­45, 140</strong> Albert Lorenz; 
            <strong>46­54</strong> Lindy Burnett; <strong>58­63, 
            80­81, 144</strong> Jim Steck; <strong>64­71, 139</strong> 
            Ronnie Rooney; <strong>84, 90­97</strong> Chris Lensch; 
            <strong>98­105</strong> Remy Simard; <strong>124­
            131</strong> Suzanne Beaky</p>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Photographs</h2>
        <p><em>Every effort has been made to secure permission and 
            provide appropriate credit for photographic material. 
            The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to 
            correct errors called to its attention in subsequent 
            editions.</em></p>
        <p><em>Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the 
            property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson 
            Education.</em></p>
        <p><em>Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), 
            Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R), Background 
            (Bkgd).</em></p>
        <p><strong>Opener:</strong> (CL) ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis, 
            (BR) Getty Images; <strong>1</strong> ©Tom Stewart/
            Corbis; <strong>3</strong> ©Thomas Ropke/Corbis; 
            <strong>5</strong> ©Terry Vine/Getty Images; <strong>6
            </strong> ©BananaStock/SuperStock; <strong>8</strong> 
            (C) Getty Images, (BL) ©Ed Bock/Corbis; <strong>9</strong> 
            (CR) ©Blend Images/Getty Images, (TL) ©Chuck Savage/
            Corbis, (BL) ©BananaStock/SuperStock; <strong>10</strong> 
            (TL, BR) Jupiter Images, (TR) ©Ryan McVay/Getty Images; 
            <strong>11</strong> (TR, CC) ©Andre Jenny/Alamy Images; 
            <strong>12</strong> ©Jason Horowitz/Getty Images; 
            <strong>14</strong> ©Panoramic/Getty Images; 
            <strong>16</strong> ©Andre Jenny/Alamy Images; <strong>
            18</strong> ©Linda Matlow/Alamy Images; <strong>31
            </strong> ©Stockbyte; <strong>57</strong> ©Randy Faris/
            Corbis; <strong>59</strong> ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis; 
            <strong>82</strong> ©Michael A. Keller/Corbis; <strong>83
            </strong> Getty Images; <strong>108</strong> (BR, BL) S. 
            T. Yiap/Alamy Images; <strong>109</strong> Getty Images; 
            <strong>110</strong> (TR) Jason McConathey/©The Chocolate 
            Farm, Denver, CO, (BR) Jupiter Images; <strong>111
            </strong> ©RubberBall/ SuperStock; <strong>112</strong> 
            ©Dennis MacDonald/PhotoEdit; <strong>113</strong> Getty 
            Images; <strong>114</strong> ©Lisa Pines/Getty Images; 
            <strong>115</strong> ©Yellow Dog Productions/Getty 
            Images; <strong>116</strong> Jason McConathey/©The 
            Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO; <strong>117</strong> (T) T. S. 
            Webster/©The Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO, (BR, BC, BL) 
            Jason McConathey/©The Chocolate Farm, Denver, CO; <strong>
            118</strong> ©Thomas Ropke/ Corbis; <strong>120</strong> 
            ©Dex Images/Corbis; <strong>121</strong> BananaStock; 
            <strong>122</strong> Getty Images; <strong>123</strong> 
            (T) ©Tom Stewart/Corbis, (T) ©Royalty-Free/Corbis; 
            <strong>132</strong> (T, BC) Jupiter Images, (C) TongRo 
            Image Stock, (T) Thinkstock; <strong>133</strong> (B, TR) 
            ©David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; <strong>134</strong> 
            ©RubberBall/SuperStock; <strong>136</strong> Jupiter 
            Images; <strong>137</strong> ©Jason Horowitz/Getty Images; 
            <strong>138</strong> ©David Young-Wolf/ PhotoEdit; 
            <strong>142</strong> Getty Images</p>
    </level2>
</level1>

    

Information Object: Dedication

Definition

A formal offering or dedication of a text by the author to one or more persons or institutions.

Markup

The dedication page is included in the front matter and is marked with a level or level1 tag. If there is no heading associated with it, it should be marked with a div.

Syntax

<level1 class="dedication">
    <h1>Dedication</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="dedication">
    <h1>Dedication</h1>
    <p>For Digger, Magrath and Poppy - as always</p>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 2 from Reading Street (0-328-33667-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Page 2 from Reading Street (0-328-33667-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<pagenum id="id4550550">2</pagenum>
<div class="dedication">
    <p>We dedicate Reading Street to Peter Jovanovich.</p>
    <p>His wisdom, courage, and passion for education are an 
        inspiration to us all.</p>
</div>
<img src="images/thruout/ar.png" width="26" height="21" 
    alt="Accelerated Reader Icon"/>
<p>Accelerated Reader<sup>®</sup></p>
<level2>
    <h2>About the Cover Artist</h2>
    <p>Mark Buehner's sisters say that he was born with a pencil 
        in his hand. While he was growing up, pulling out pencils, 
        paper, and watercolors was part of his daily routine. He 
        loved poring over the pictures in books and even used to 
        staple his pictures together to make books. He had no idea 
        that what he was doing would eventually become his career. 
        He grew up to become an award-winning illustrator of books 
        for children. He believes he has the best job in the 
        world!</p>
    <p>ISBN-13: 978-0-328-24350-1</p>
    <p>ISBN-10: 0-328-24350-7</p>
    <p>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.</p>
    <p>All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 
        This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission 
        should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited 
        reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission 
        in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
        photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information 
        regarding permission(s), write to: Permissions Department, 
        Scott Foresman, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 
        60025.</p>
    <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V057 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07</p>
    <p>CC:N1</p>
</level2>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Dedication is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<pagenum id="id4550550">2</pagenum>
<p>We dedicate Reading Street to Peter Jovanovich.</p>
<p>His wisdom, courage, and passion for education are an 
    inspiration to us all.</p>

<img src="images/thruout/ar.png" width="26" height="21" alt="" />
<p>Accelerated Reader<sup>®</sup></p>
<level2>
    <h2>About the Cover Artist</h2>
    <p>Mark Buehner's sisters say that he was born with a pencil 
        in his hand. While he was growing up, pulling out pencils, 
        paper, and watercolors was part of his daily routine. He 
        loved poring over the pictures in books and even used to 
        staple his pictures together to make books. He had no idea 
        that what he was doing would eventually become his career. 
        He grew up to become an award-winning illustrator of books 
        for children. He believes he has the best job in the 
        world!</p>
    <p>ISBN-13: 978-0-328-24350-1</p>
    <p>ISBN-10: 0-328-24350-7</p>
    <p>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.</p>
    <p>All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 
        This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission 
        should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited 
        reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission 
        in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
        photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information 
        regarding permission(s), write to: Permissions Department, 
        Scott Foresman, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 
        60025.</p>
    <p>2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V057 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07</p>
    <p>CC:N1</p>
</level2>

Information Object: Preface

Definition

The preface is used by the author or publisher to explain the content, origin and/or purpose of the book to the reader.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

The preface is to be included in the front matter and may be marked up with a level, level1 or level2 tag, depending on the structure of the front matter. Other prefatory material such as introductions, forewords, editor's notes, translator's notes, etc. should be marked up in the same manner as a preface.

Syntax

<level1 class="preface">
    <h1>Preface</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="preface">
    <h1>Preface</h1>
    <p>Certain authors write with such vitality that literary coteries
    grow up around the characters of their imagination. The
    "Pickwickians", the "Jane-ites", the "Dickensians" are typical
    of such groups. Lewis Carroll's "Alice" books have a world
    following and the devotees of "Pooh" recognize each other almost
    upon sight. Most of these enthusiasms are based upon two or more
    titles by the same author. There is one enthusiasm, however, the
    fellowship of Rat and Mole and Mr. Toad, that stems from one
    single book - The Wind in the Willows.</p>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

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Page 6 from The Creative Writing Handbook (0-673-36013-X) by Good Year Books

Page 6 from The Creative Writing Handbook (0-673-36013-X) by Good Year Books

Sample Code:

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<level1 class="introduction">
    <pagenum id="p6">6</pagenum>
    <h1>Introduction</h1>
    <p>Can you remember what your first day of school was like? Do 
        certain smells remind you of the summertime? Have you ever 
        seen something unusual andthen told your friends about it 
        later? Can you close yoru eyes and picture a place that is 
        special to you? If you answered yes to these questions, then 
        you are already a writer. You already possess theskills to 
        write your own original stories and poems.</p>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Preface is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

    	
<level1>
    <pagenum id="p6">6</pagenum>
    <h1>Introduction</h1>
    <p>Can you remember what your first day of school was like? Do 
        certain smells remind you of the summertime? Have you ever 
        seen something unusual andthen told your friends about it 
        later? Can you close yoru eyes and picture a place that is 
        special to you? If you answered yes to these questions, then 
        you are already a writer. You already possess theskills to 
        write your own original stories and poems.</p>
</level1>

    

Definition

The table of contents provides information to the reader about the main sections of the book: front matter, text divisions and back matter including the index. It includes the title and the beginning page number of each section of the book. In a volume consisting of chapters by different authors, the name of each author may be given in the table of contents with the title of the chapter.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

The printed table of contents is to be included in the front matter and is most often marked with a level1 tag. The table of contents should be considered a nested list and each item in the table of contents should be marked as a list item. If page numbers are provided for the items listed, each item and each page number may be marked as separate "list item components" using the lic tag. The class attribute on lic specifies what type of list item component each one is ("entry" and "pagenum" in the example below).

Note that the "type" attribute in <list> is required. See Information Object: Lists for additional information about marking up lists.

Syntax

<level1 class="print_toc">
    <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
    <list type="pl">
        <li><lic class="entry">First Item</lic> <lic class="pagenum">1</lic></li>
        <li><lic class="entry">Second Item</lic> <lic class="pagenum">23</lic></li>
    </list>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum page="front" id="p-vi">vi</pagenum>
  <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
  <list class="toc" type="pl">
    <li>
      <lic class="toc-line">CHAPTER 1 Preparing to Read for Success</lic>
      <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-1">1</a></lic>
      <list class="toc-chapter" type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Getting Ready to Read This Book</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-1">1</a></lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Why Read a Book to Learn How to Read a Book?</lic> 
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-2">2</a></lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Final Check</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-14">14</a></lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li>
      <lic class="toc-line">CHAPTER 2 Previewing Reading Selections</lic>
      <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-15">15</a></lic>
      <list class="toc-chapter" type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Previewing Reading Selections</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-15">15</a></lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">How to Preview</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-18">18</a></lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Final Check</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg"><a href="#p-32">32</a></lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page ii from Sidewalks (0-328-21426-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman Page iii from Sidewalks (0-328-21426-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Pages ii-iii from Sidewalks (0-328-21426-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum id="IDALCAQ" page="front">ii</pagenum>
  <h1>Unit 1 Contents - Animals Tame and Wild</h1>
  <list type="pl">
    <li>Animal Friends
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Taking Care of Pets: How do people take care of pets?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">4</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">People Help Animals: How can people help animals?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">20</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Animals Help People: How can animals help people?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">40</lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <pagenum id="IDAIDAQ" page="front">iii</pagenum>
    <li>Wild Animals
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">See the Animals: How can we learn about animals by watching them?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">60</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Animal Neighbors: Which wild animals can we find in our neighborhood?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">86</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Animals Around the World: How can we help animals around the world?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">118</lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Table of Contents is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum id="IDALCAQ" page="front">ii</pagenum>
  <h1>Unit 1 Contents - Animals Tame and Wild</h1>
  <list type="pl">
    <li>Animal Friends
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Taking Care of Pets: How do people take care of pets?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">4</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">People Help Animals: How can people help animals?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">20</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Animals Help People: How can animals help people?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">40</span>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <pagenum id="IDAIDAQ" page="front">iii</pagenum>
    <li>Wild Animals
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">See the Animals: How can we learn about animals by watching them?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">60</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Animal Neighbors: Which wild animals can we find in our neighborhood?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">86</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Animals Around the World: How can we help animals around the world?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">118</span>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 2

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Pages FM6-FM7 from Science (0-328-10079-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Pages FM6-FM7 from Science (0-328-10079-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
        

<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum page="special" id="IDAMVVP">FM6-FM7</pagenum>
  <h1>Unit A Life Science</h1>
  <list type="pl">
    <li>Chapter 1 - Needs of Plants and Animals: What do plants and animals need?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "Because They Are Living"</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">4</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Build Background</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">6</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: What things are nonliving?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">8</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Alike and Different</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">10</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - What are nonliving things?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">12</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - What are living things?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">14</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - How does air help plants and animals?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">16</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - How does water help plants and animals?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">18</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - How does food help plants and animals?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">20</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 6 - What else do plants and animals need?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">22</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Guided Inquiry - Investigate: What can grow?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">24</lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li>Chapter 2 - Growing and Changing: How do plants and animals grow and change?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "There's an Egg in a Nest"</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">26</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Build Background</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">28</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: How do people change?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">30</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Alike and Different</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">32</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - How do animals change?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">34</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - How do animals move?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">36</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - How are these animals alike and different?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">38</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - What are the parts of a plant?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">40</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - How do plants grow?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">42</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Guided Inquiry - Investigate: How do animals grow and change?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">44</lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li>Chapter 3 - Plants and Animals All Around: Where do plants and animals live?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "Living on Land, Living in Water"</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">46</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Build Background</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">48</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: How can you show where animals live?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">50</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Picture Clues</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">52</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - What are some plants and animals that live on land?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">54</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - What are some plants and animals that live in water?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">56</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - What are some plants and animals that live in hot places?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">58</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - What are some plants and animals that live in cold places?</lic> 
          <lic class="toc-pg">60</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - What are some other places plants and animals live?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">62</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone:  Guided Inquiry Investigate How can you show different habitats?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">64</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Math in Science: Counting</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">66</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Biography: Eugenie Clark</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">68</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">NASA: Space Seeds</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">70</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Full Inquiry - Experiment: Do seeds need water?</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">72</lic>
        </li>
        <li>
          <lic class="toc-line">End with a Poem: "How a Puppy Grows"</lic>
          <lic class="toc-pg">74</lic>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
 </level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Table of Contents is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:



<level1 class="print_toc">
  <pagenum page="special" id="IDAMVVP">FM6-FM7</pagenum>
  <h1>Unit A Life Science</h1>
  <list type="pl">
    <li>Chapter 1 - Needs of Plants and Animals: What do plants and animals need?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "Because They Are Living"</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">4</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Build Background</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">6</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: What things are nonliving?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">8</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Alike and Different</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">10</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - What are nonliving things?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">12</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - What are living things?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">14</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - How does air help plants and animals?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">16</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - How does water help plants and animals?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">18</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - How does food help plants and animals?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">20</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 6 - What else do plants and animals need?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">22</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Guided Inquiry - Investigate: What can grow?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">24</span>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li>Chapter 2 - Growing and Changing: How do plants and animals grow and change?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "There's an Egg in a Nest"</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">26</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Build Background</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">28</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: How do people change?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">30</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Alike and Different</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">32</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - How do animals change?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">34</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - How do animals move?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">36</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - How are these animals alike and different?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">38</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - What are the parts of a plant?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">40</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - How do plants grow?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">42</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Guided Inquiry - Investigate: How do animals grow and change?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">44</span>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
    <li>Chapter 3 - Plants and Animals All Around: Where do plants and animals live?
      <list type="pl">
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Chapter Song: "Living on Land, Living in Water"</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">46</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Build Background</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">48</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Directed Inquiry - Explore: How can you show where animals live?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">50</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Target Skill: How to Read Science - Picture Clues</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">52</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 1 - What are some plants and animals that live on land?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">54</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 2 - What are some plants and animals that live in water?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">56</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 3 - What are some plants and animals that live in hot places?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">58</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 4 - What are some plants and animals that live in cold places?</span> 
          <span class="toc-pg">60</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lesson 5 - What are some other places plants and animals live?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">62</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone:  Guided Inquiry Investigate How can you show different habitats?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">64</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Math in Science: Counting</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">66</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Biography: Eugenie Clark</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">68</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">NASA: Space Seeds</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">70</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">Lab Zone: Full Inquiry - Experiment: Do seeds need water?</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">72</span>
        </li>
        <li>
          <span class="toc-line">End with a Poem: "How a Puppy Grows"</span>
          <span class="toc-pg">74</span>
        </li>
      </list>
    </li>
  </list>
 </level1>

Information Object: Body Matter

Definition

Body Matter, the second of the three major divisions of a book, consists of the text proper. It is the content per se that represents the author's thesis or story. The body of a book is often divided into chapters and further subdivided into one or more levels with subheadings such as sections and subsections. Sometimes the text material is logically divided into sections larger than chapters with the chapters grouped into parts which are usually numbered. The body sometimes concludes with either epilogues, afterwords or conclusions.

Bibliographic Reference

Overview

In the body of the book all major structures should be marked in a strict hierarchy and level tags and their associated headings should be used for identification.

Markup

<bodymatter> serves primarily as a container for a variety of structures and is commonly subdivided into a number of levels.

Syntax

<bodymatter> may contain only one of the following child elements:

<bodymatter>
    <level1>...</level1>
</bodymatter>

OR

<bodymatter>
    <level>...</level>
</bodymatter>

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard: Block-level elements such as <div> are not permitted as child elements of <bodymatter>.

Examples

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 1 from Trees (1-58356-884-0) by Delta Education Page 24 from Trees (1-58356-884-0) by Delta Education

Pages 1 and 24 from Trees (1-58356-884-0) by Delta Education

Sample Code:

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<bodymatter>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDAREUP">3</pagenum>
        <img src="images/U04C00/p003-001.png" alt="A very tall 
            tree." width="357" height="435"/>
        <h1>Where Do Trees Grow?</h1>
        <p><strong>Trees</strong> are living things.</p>
        <p>Trees have woody <strong>stems</strong> and 
            <strong>roots.</strong></p>
        <p>They have <strong>branches</strong> with 
            <strong>leaves.</strong></p>

        <!-- . . . --> 

        <pagenum id="IDAB2UP">24</pagenum>
        <img src="images/U07C00/p024-001.png" alt="A close up view 
                of maple seeds" width="437" height="405"/>
        <p>These are maple <strong>seeds.</strong></p>
        <p>What will happen when they are planted and grow?</p>
    </level1>
</bodymatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

<bodymatter> is a NIMAS-required element.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<bodymatter>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="IDAREUP">3</pagenum>
        <img src="images/U04C00/p003-001.png" width="357" height="435" alt="" />
        <h1>Where Do Trees Grow?</h1>
        <p><strong>Trees</strong> are living things.</p>
        <p>Trees have woody <strong>stems</strong> and 
            <strong>roots.</strong></p>
        <p>They have <strong>branches</strong> with 
            <strong>leaves.</strong></p>

        <!-- . . . --> 

        <pagenum id="IDAB2UP">24</pagenum>
        <img src="images/U07C00/p024-001.png" width="437" height="405" alt=""/>
        <p>These are maple <strong>seeds.</strong></p>
        <p>What will happen when they are planted and grow?</p>
    </level1>
</bodymatter>

Information Object: Part

Definition

A Part is a logical division of text material; it is often a section larger than chapters into which chapters are grouped. Each Part is normally numbered and given a part title. The Part number and title may appear on the page preceding the first chapter. Chapters within Parts are most commonly numbered consecutively through the book rather than each new part beginning with a new "chapter one".

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Parts are very often the highest level structures in the body of the book. When this is the case they are marked with level1 tags. If a book is divided into Parts which are further divided into chapters, the chapters would be marked with level2 tags.

Note: To ensure accurate navigation, the markup at the beginning of a structure at the highest level, in this instance Parts, must follow a precise order. The order should always be: level1, pagenum (if used), heading. For example, a Part might start on page 1 which contained only the Part heading and a full page picture. The order of the markup would be: level1, pagenum 1, heading. The image (if included) would follow the heading. This markup sequence should be applied to all headings at any level, that is, level, pagenum, heading.

Syntax

<level1 class="part">
    <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Part 1</h1>
    <level2 class="chapter">
        <!-- ... -->
    </level2>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="part">
  <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
  <h1>Part 1 Perfection and Imperfection: A Trilogy on a
    Panda's Thumb</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_2" page="normal">2</pagenum>
    <h2>1 - The Panda's Thumb</h2>
    <p>Few heroes lower their sights in the prime of their lives;
      triumph leads inexorably on, often to destruction. Alexander wept
      because he had no new worlds to conquer; Napoleon, overextended,
      sealed his doom in the depth of a Russian winter.</p>
    <!-- ... -->
  </level2>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_27" page="normal">27</pagenum>
    <h2>2 - Senseless Signs of History</h2>
    <p>Words provide clues about their history when etymology does not
      match current meaning.</p>
    <!-- ... -->
  </level2>
    <!-- ... -->
</level1>
<level1 class="part">
  <pagenum id="page_46" page="normal">46</pagenum>
  <h1>Part 2 Darwiniana</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_47" page="normal">47</pagenum>
    <h2>4 - Natural Selection and the Human Brain: Darwin
      vs. Wallace</h2>
    <p>In the south transept of Chartres cathedral, the most stunning of
      all medieval windows depicts the four evangelists as dwarfs sitting
      upon the shoulders of four old testament prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.</p>
    <!-- ... -->
  </level2>
  <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 1 from Social Studies (0-328-23972-0) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Page 1 from Social Studies (0-328-23972-0) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<level1 class="part">
    <pagenum id="id4580695">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Unit 1: Where We Live</h1>
    <img src="images/U01C00/p001-001.png" alt="A young girl posing 
        with many different snow globes."/>
    <p>What would you say about where you live?</p>
    <!-- ... -->
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Part is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section would be formatted as follows:



<level1 class="part">
    <pagenum id="id4580695">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Unit 1: Where We Live</h1>
    <img src="images/U01C00/p001-001.png" alt="" />
    <p>What would you say about where you live?</p>
    <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Information Object: Chapter

Definition

The chapter is the most common division of most prose works. In a printed book, chapters customarily begin on a new page and the chapter display (heading) usually consists of a chapter number and chapter title which are generally listed in the book's table of contents. The chapter display (the first page of the chapter in the print) can also contain an epigraph in addition to the chapter number and title. In books consisting of chapters contributed by different authors, chapter numbers are sometimes omitted; however, the author's name is usually given in the display.

A chapter can be divided into smaller divisions most commonly called sections. This occurs most often in textbooks and technical and scholarly publications.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Chapters are included in the body matter of the book and are often marked with a level1 tag unless the book is divided into Parts into which the chapters are grouped. In the latter case the Parts would be marked with level1 tags and the Chapters with level2 tags. (see also: Information Object: Part)

Note: To ensure accurate navigation, the markup at the beginning of a chapter must follow a precise order. The order should always be: level, pagenum (if used), heading. In this way, if an end user navigates to the chapter (i.e., the level tag) they will hear the page number followed by the Chapter heading. If they navigate to pagenum, they will still hear the page number and heading. For example, a chapter might start on page 1 which contains only the chapter heading and a full page picture. The order of the markup would be: level, pagenum 1, heading. The image (if included) would follow the heading.

Syntax

<level1 class="chapter">
  <h1>Chapter</h1>
  <level2 class="section">
    <!-- ... -->
  </level2>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 1 The River Bank</h1>
    <p>The Mole had been working very hard all morning, spring cleaning his
    little home. First with brooms, then with dusters; then on ladders and steps
    and chairs with a brush and a pail of whitewash; till he had dust in his throat
    and eyes, and splashes of whitewash all over his black fur, and an aching back
    and weary arms. Spring was moving in the air above and in the earth below and
    around him, penetrating even his dark and lowly little house with its spirit
    of discontent and longing.</p>
</level1>
<level1 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="page_22" page="normal">22</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 2 The Open Road</h1>
    <p>...</p>
    <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 1 from Science (0-328-10003-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Page 1 from Science (0-328-10003-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

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<level1 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="IDA1OUQ">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 1 Plants and How They Grow</h1>
    <list type="ul">
        <hd>You Will Discover</hd>
        <li>ways parts of a plant help it survive.</li>
        <li> different types of plants. </li>
        <li> different ways plants make more plants. </li>
        <li> that plants have changed over time. </li>
    </list>
    <img src="images/ose.png" alt="OSE Icon" width="161" height="61"/>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<level1 class="chapter">
    <pagenum id="IDA1OUQ">1</pagenum>
    <h1>Chapter 1 Plants and How They Grow</h1>
    <list type="ul">
        <hd>You Will Discover</hd>
        <li>ways parts of a plant help it survive.</li>
        <li> different types of plants. </li>
        <li> different ways plants make more plants. </li>
        <li> that plants have changed over time. </li>
    </list>
    <img src="images/ose.png" alt="" width="161" height="61"/>
</level1>
    


Information Object: Section, Subsection, and Lower Levels of the Hierarchy

Definition

Sections are inserted by the author or editor in prose works where the chapters are long and the material complex. Sections and/or subheadings in the text function as guides to the reader. Most scholarly works require only one level of subheading throughout. Scientific and technical works frequently require further subdivisions.

When a section of text is subdivided, there should be at least two subsections, and in some works the number of sections will vary from chapter to chapter, and the levels of subdivision may vary as well.

Sections and subsections may be numbered or unnumbered. Especially in scientific and technical works, the numbering of sections and subsections provides an easy reference to the reader. In print books, unnumbered sections and further subdivisions are indicated by font size and various forms of emphasis such as bolding or the use of italics.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Sections and subsections of chapters are included in the body matter of the book and are marked with level2, level3, or level4 tags, etc., depending on where they fall in the hierarchy.

Note in the example below that the level and heading tags include a class attribute of the same name as the type of division being tagged (class="chapter", "section", or "subsection"). When books are divided below the subsection level, some creativity is required to find suitable names for those lower levels to distinguish among them.

Syntax

<level2 class="section">
    <h2>Chapter 5</h2>
    <level3 class="subsection">
        <h3>Metadata for Mary</h3>
        <!-- ... -->
    </level3>
</level2>

Complete syntax:

<level1 class="part">
  <h1>Part One: Standards</h1>
  <level2 class="chapter">
    <h2>Chapter 3: Core Services</h2>
    <level3 class="section">
      <h3>Circulation Systems</h3>
      <level4 class="subsection">
        <h4>Loan Periods</h4>
        <level5>
          <h5>Overdue Notices</h5>
          <!-- ... -->
        </level5>
        <!-- ... -->
      </level4>
      <!-- ... -->
    </level3>
    <!-- ... -->
  </level2>
  <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


       <level1 class="chapter">
           <pagenum id="page_1" page="normal">1</pagenum>
           <h1>Chapter 1 People as a Basic Resource</h1>
           <level2 class="section">
               <pagenum id="page_2" page="normal">2</pagenum>
               <h2>Introduction</h2>
               <p>Operating managers face unprecedented advances in
               technology...around the world.</p>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Demographic Trends</h3>
                   <p>America's population is changing dramatically.
                   On average... at the height of the baby boom.</p>
                   <!-- ... -->
               </level3>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Socioeconomic Changes</h3>
                   <p>Socioeconomic changes are also having tremendous impact
                   on organizations...productively.</p>
                   <!-- ... -->
               </level3>
           </level2>
           <level2 class="section">
               <pagenum id="page_7" page="normal">7</pagenum>
               <h2>The History of Human Resource management</h2>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>Early Organization</h3>
                   <p>Management of society and organizations in ancient
                   Rome 2000 years ago...several assumptions.</p>
                   <!-- ... -->
               </level3>
               <level3 class="subsection">
                   <h3>The Industrial Revolution</h3>
                   <p>In the early 1800's, Western Europe and North America
                   began to change from agricultural...</p>
                   <!-- ... -->
               </level3>
           </level2>
       </level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 7 from ChemComm: Chemistry in the Community (0-7167-8919-1) by American Chemical Society

Page 7 from ChemComm: Chemistry in the Community (0-7167-8919-1) by American Chemical Society

Sample Code:

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<level2 class="section">
    <pagenum id="IDAJAKP">7</pagenum>
    <h2>Section A Sources of Water</h2>
    <p>Riverwood confronts at least a three-day water shortage. The 
        water emergency has aroused understandable concern among 
        Riverwood citizens, town officials, and business owners. What 
        caused the fish kill? Does the fish kill mean that Riverwood's 
        water supply poses hazards to humans? In the following pages, 
        you will monitor the town's progress in answering these 
        questions as you learn more about water's properties.</p>
	
    <level3 class="subsection">
        <h3>A.1 Town In Crisis</h3>
        <p>Although Riverwood is imaginary, its problems are not. 
            Residents of many communities have faced these and 
            similar problems. In fact, two water-related challenges 
            confront each of us every day. Can we get enough water 
            to supply our needs? Can we get sufficiently pure water? 
            These two questions serve as major themes of this unit, 
            and their answers require an understanding of water's 
            chemistry and uses.</p>
        <p>The notion of water purity must be given careful 
            consideration. See Figure 1.2. You will soon learn that 
            the cost of producing a supply of water that is <em>100%
            </em> pure is prohibitively high. Is that level of purity 
            needed-or even desirable? Communities and regulatory 
            agencies are responsible for ensuring the availability of 
            water of sufficiently high quality for its intended uses 
            at reasonable cost. How do they accomplish this task?</p>
        <p>Even the apparently simple idea of "water use" presents 
            some fascinating puzzles, as the following 
            <em>ChemQuandary</em> illustrates.</p>
        <imggroup>
            <img src="images/p007-001.png" alt="Lake with clear 
                water"/>
            <prodnote render="optional">The landscape of a pristine 
                lake surrounded by (and reflecting) green forestry 
                and snow capped mountains.</prodnote>
            <caption><strong>Figure 1.2</strong> This water is 
                obviously clear, but is it pure? What is pure water?
                </caption>
        </imggroup>
    </level3>
    <!-- ... -->
</level2>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:



<level2 class="section">
    <pagenum id="IDAJAKP">7</pagenum>
    <h2>Section A Sources of Water</h2>
    <p>Riverwood confronts at least a three-day water shortage. The 
        water emergency has aroused understandable concern among 
        Riverwood citizens, town officials, and business owners. What 
        caused the fish kill? Does the fish kill mean that Riverwood's 
        water supply poses hazards to humans? In the following pages, 
        you will monitor the town's progress in answering these 
        questions as you learn more about water's properties.</p>
    <level3 class="subsection">
        <h3>A.1 Town In Crisis</h3>
        <p>Although Riverwood is imaginary, its problems are not. 
            Residents of many communities have faced these and 
            similar problems. In fact, two water-related challenges 
            confront each of us every day. Can we get enough water 
            to supply our needs? Can we get sufficiently pure water? 
            These two questions serve as major themes of this unit, 
            and their answers require an understanding of water's 
            chemistry and uses.</p>
        <p>The notion of water purity must be given careful 
            consideration. See Figure 1.2. You will soon learn that 
            the cost of producing a supply of water that is <em>100%
            </em> pure is prohibitively high. Is that level of purity 
            needed-or even desirable? Communities and regulatory 
            agencies are responsible for ensuring the availability of 
            water of sufficiently high quality for its intended uses 
            at reasonable cost. How do they accomplish this task?</p>
        <p>Even the apparently simple idea of "water use" presents 
            some fascinating puzzles, as the following 
            <em>ChemQuandary</em> illustrates.</p>
        <imggroup>
            <img src="images/p007-001.png" alt=""/>
            <prodnote render="optional">The landscape of a pristine 
                lake surrounded by (and reflecting) green forestry 
                and snow capped mountains.</prodnote>
            <caption><strong>Figure 1.2</strong> This water is 
                obviously clear, but is it pure? What is pure water?
                </caption>
        </imggroup>
    </level3>
</level2>


Information Object: Rear Matter

Definition

The last of the three main divisions of a book, the rear matter (also referred to as back matter, end matter or reference matter) is the division of material that immediately follows the body. Rear matter is usually comprised of some or all of the following parts, which may be presented in the following order:

Bibliographic Reference

Overview

The rear matter may contain many different major structures and these should be identified as levels with their associated headings.

Markup

Rear matter serves primarily as a container for a variety of structures and is commonly subdivided into a number of levels.

Syntax

<rearmatter> may contain only the child elements level1 or level:

<rearmatter>
    <level1>...</level1> 
      OR 
    <level>...</level>
</rearmatter>

New in the 2005 release of the DAISY Standard: Block-level elements such as <div> are not permitted as child elements of <rearmatter>.

Examples

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 168 from Everyday Spelling (0-328-22300-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman Page 169 from Everyday Spelling (0-328-22300-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman Page 170 from Everyday Spelling (0-328-22300-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Pages 168-170 from Everyday Spelling (0-328-22300-X) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<rearmatter>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="dfhrj">168</pagenum>
        <h1>Vocabulary, Writing, and Reference Resources</h1>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>Cross-Curricular Lessons</li>
            <li>Writer's Handbook</li>
            <li>Spelling Dictionary</li>
            <li>Writer's Thesaurus</li>
            <li>English/Spanish Word List</li>
        </list>
        <level2>
            <pagenum id="IDA2AKN">169</pagenum>
            <h2>Cross-Curricular Lessons</h2>
            <list type="ul">
                <li><img src="images/hand.png" alt="Hand icon" width="31" height="32" /> Social Studies
                    <list type="pl">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Using a Map</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">170</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Urban Communities</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">172</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Rural Communities</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">174</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Culture</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">176</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Citizenship</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">178</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Native Americans of the Past</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">180</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/apple.png" alt="Apple icon" width="34" height="36" /> Health
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Your Teeth</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">182</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Medicine</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">184</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>A Healthy Community</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">186</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/light.png" alt="Light bulb icon" width="30" height="34" /> Science
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Animals with Backbones</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">188</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Measuring Matter</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">190</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Simple Machines</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">192</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Earth's Layers</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">194</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>The Solar System</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">196</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/pencil.png" alt="Pencil icon" width="43" height="23" /> Reading
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Stories That Twist</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">198</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Life's Challenges</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">200</lic>
                            
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Looking Beneath the Surface</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">202</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Understandings and Misunderstandings</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">204</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Unexpected Situations</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">206</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Imagination at Work</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">208</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/divide.png" alt="Division icon" width="35" height="30" /> Mathematics
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Time</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">210</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Multiplication</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">212</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Geometry</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">214</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Measuring Capacity and Mass</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">216</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Fractions</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">218</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Graphs and Charts</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">220</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/pencil.png" alt="Pencil icon" width="43" height="23"/> Work and Play
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>
                            <lic>Baseball</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">222</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Carpenter</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">224</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Police Officer</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">226</lic>
                        </li>
                        <li>
                            <lic>Pottery</lic>
                            <lic class="pagenum">228</lic>
                        </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
            </list>
            <level3>
                <pagenum id="IDAKGKN">170</pagenum>
                <h3>Social Studies</h3>
                <level4>
                    <h4>Using a Map</h4>
                    <p>How good are you at map talk? These words will help 
                       you read a map. Look up unknown words in the Spelling 
                       Dictionary. Add another word to the list that might 
                       help you find your way around a map.</p>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>grid</li>
                        <li>locate</li>
                        <li>compass rose</li>
                        <li>cardinal </li>
                        <li>directions</li>
                        <li>scale</li>
                        <li>miles</li>
                        <li>map key</li>
                        <li>symbol </li>
                    </list>
                    <level5>
                        <h5>Getting At Meaning</h5>
                        <p><strong>Labeling a Map</strong>
                           Write list words to identify the different parts 
                           of a map. The NOT clues can help you. They tell 
                           the usual meanings of the words. The map shows 
                           the special meanings of the words.</p>
                        <imggroup>
                            <img id="p170-001" src="images/p170-001.png" alt="Map" width="545" height="382"/>
                            <prodnote render="optional" imgref="p170-001">An illustration shows a compass,
                                a map and a list of map features. Four boxes point to specific map features,
                                labelled as follows: Box 1, "NOT a flower to put in a vase," points to the
                                compass. Box 2, "NOT for weighing people," points to a line with illegible
                                markings along the top, that line up to markings on the bottom: "0, 1/4, 1/2,
                                3/4, 0." Box 4, "NOT a red bird," points to "N" on the compass.</prodnote> 
                        </imggroup>
                    </level5>
                </level4>
            </level3>
            <!-- ... -->
        </level2>
    </level1>
</rearmatter>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

<rearmatter> is a NIMAS-required element.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<rearmatter>
    <level1>
        <pagenum id="dfhrj">168</pagenum>
        <h1>Vocabulary, Writing, and Reference Resources</h1>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>Cross-Curricular Lessons</li>
            <li>Writer's Handbook</li>
            <li>Spelling Dictionary</li>
            <li>Writer's Thesaurus</li>
            <li>English/Spanish Word List</li>
        </list>
        <level2>
            <pagenum id="IDA2AKN">169</pagenum>
            <h2>Cross-Curricular Lessons</h2>
            <list type="pl">
                <li><img src="images/hand.png" width="31" 
                    height="32" alt=""/> <strong>Social Studies</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Using a Map 170 </li>
                        <li>Urban Communities 172 </li>
                        <li>Rural Communities 174 </li>
                        <li>Culture 176 </li>
                        <li>Citizenship 178 </li>
                        <li>Native Americans of the Past 180 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/apple.png" 
                    width="34" height="36" alt=""/> <strong>Health</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Your Teeth 182 </li>
                        <li>Medicine 184 </li>
                        <li>A Healthy Community 186 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/light.png" 
                    width="30" height="34" alt=""/> <strong>Science</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Animals with Backbones 188 </li>
                        <li>Measuring Matter 190 </li>
                        <li>Simple Machines 192 </li>
                        <li>Earth's Layers 194 </li>
                        <li>The Solar System 196 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/book.png" width="41" 
                    height="35" alt=""/> <strong>Reading</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Stories That Twist 198</li>
                        <li>Life's Challenges 200</li>
                        <li>Looking Beneath the Surface 202 </li>
                        <li>Understandings and Misunderstandings 204 </li>
                        <li>Unexpected Situations 206 </li>
                        <li>Imagination at Work 208 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/divide.png" 
                    width="35" height="30" alt=""/> <strong>Mathematics</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Time 210 </li>
                        <li>Multiplication 212 </li>
                        <li>Geometry 214 </li>
                        <li>Measuring Capacity and Mass 216 </li>
                        <li>Fractions 218 </li>
                        <li>Graphs and Charts 220 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
                <li><img src="images/pencil.png" 
                    width="43" height="23" alt=""/> <strong>Work and Play</strong>
                    <list type="ul">
                        <li>Baseball 222 </li>
                        <li>Carpenter 224 </li>
                        <li>Police Officer 226 </li>
                        <li>Pottery 228 </li>
                    </list>
                </li>
            </list>
            <pagenum id="IDAKGKN">170</pagenum>
            <level3>
                <h3>Social Studies</h3>
                <level4>
                    <h4>Using a Map</h4>
                    <p>How good are you at map talk? These words will help 
                        you read a map. Look up unknown words in the Spelling 
                        Dictionary. Add another word to the list that might 
                        help you find your way around a map.</p>
                    <list type="pl">
                        <li>grid</li>
                        <li>locate </li>
                        <li>compass rose</li>
                        <li>cardinal </li>
                        <li>directions</li>
                        <li>scale</li>
                        <li>miles</li>
                        <li>map key</li>
                        <li>symbol </li>
                    </list>
                    <level5>
                        <h5>Getting At Meaning</h5>
                        <p><strong>Labeling a Map</strong></p>
                        <p>Write list words to identify the different parts 
                            of a map. The NOT clues can help you. They tell 
                            the usual meanings of the words. The map shows 
                            the special meanings of the words.</p>
                        <img src="images/p170-001.png" 
                                width="545" height="382" alt=""/>
                    </level5>
                </level4>
            </level3>
            <!-- ... -->
        </level2>
    </level1>
</rearmatter>

Information Object: Appendix

Definition

One or more appendices appear in some books to provide the reader with further clarification or explanation of matters discussed in the text but which are not essential parts of the text. The content of appendices can include, for example, texts of source documents, surveys and/or questionnaires, and lists or tables of supplementary information.

An appendix is most commonly found as part of the rear matter of a book, although in some cases, an appendix may be placed at the end of a chapter if it is essential to the understanding of that chapter.

When there are two or more appendices in a book they are numbered like chapters (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.) or they are designated by letters (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) Appendices are usually titled.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Appendices are included in rear matter and are generally marked up with a level1 tag. If there is a separate section entitled "Appendices" within which a number of appendices are grouped, the section should usually be tagged as a level1 and the individual appendices as level2.

Syntax

<level1 class="appendix">
    <h1>Appendix A</h1>
    <p>...</p>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1


<level1 class="appendix">
    <pagenum id="page_345" page="normal">345</pagenum>
    <h1>Appendix 1, The Mails</h1>
    <p>Between 1867 and 1869 a number of changes were made in British and
    ...Halifax mail.</p>
    <level2 class="section">
        <h2> American Mail via New York</h2>
        <p>The first regular transatlantic mail began in July 1840
        in accordance with...to Boston via Halifax.</p>
        <!-- ... -->
    </level2>
    <level2 class="section">
    <pagenum id="page_346" page="normal">346</pagenum>
        <h2>Halifax Mail</h2>
        <p>Halifax had served as a mail depot since 1840, when the
        Cunard Line...January 1868.</p>
        <!-- ... -->
    </level2>
</level1>
<level1 class="appendix">
    <pagenum id="page_347" page="normal">347</pagenum>
    <h1>Appendix 2, The Scheme</h1>
    <p>During the 1860's, successive attempts were made to centralize
    control of...British Army.</p>
    <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page A-1 from ChemComm: Chemistry in the Community (0-7167-8919-1) by American Chemical Society Page A-2 from ChemComm: Chemistry in the Community (0-7167-8919-1) by American Chemical Society

Pages A-1 and A-2 from ChemComm: Chemistry in the Community (0-7167-8919-1) by American Chemical Society

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<level1 class="appendix">
    <pagenum id="IDAKAKN" page="special">A-1</pagenum> 
    <h1>Appendix A: The Scientific Method vs. Scientific Methods</h1>
    <p>Scientists deepen their knowledge and understanding of the 
        natural world by observing and manipulating their environment. 
        The inquiry approach used by scientists to solve problems and 
        seek knowledge has led to vast increases in understanding how 
        nature works. Many efforts have been made to formalize and 
        list the steps that scientists use to generate and test new 
        knowledge. You may have been asked to learn the "steps" of 
        the Scientific Method, such as Make Observations, Define the 
        Problem, and so on. But no one comes to an understanding of 
        how scientific inquiry works by simply learning a list of 
        steps or definitions of words.</p>
    <p>Although you may not go on to become a research scientist, it 
        is important that all students acquire the ability to conduct 
        scientific inquiry. Why? Everyone is confronted daily with 
        endless streams of facts and claims. What should be accepted 
        as true? What should be discarded? Having well-developed ways 
        to evaluate and test claims is essential in deciding between 
        valid and deceptive information.</p>
    <p>What abilities are needed to conduct scientific inquiry? 
        According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), 
        they include the abilities to</p>
    <list type="ul">
        <li>identify questions and concepts that guide scientific 
            investigations.</li>
        <li>design and conduct scientific investigations.</li>
        <li>use technology and mathematics to improve investigations 
            and communications.</li>
        <li>formulate and revise scientific explanations and models 
            using logic and evidence.</li>
        <li>recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.</li>
        <li>communicate and defend a scientific argument.</li>
    </list>
    <p>These skills are necessary for both doing and learning science. 
        They are also important skills to evaluate information in 
        daily living. You can only acquire these skills through 
        practice--by doing exercises and investigations such as those 
        contained in this textbook.</p>
    <pagenum id="IDAJBKN" page="special">A-2</pagenum> 
    <p>Even with all the abilities listed above, doing science is a 
        complex behavior. The NSES outlines the ideas that all students 
        should know and understand about the practices of science:</p>
    <list type="ul">
        <li>Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or 
            designed systems function.</li>
        <li>Scientists conduct investigations for a wide variety of 
            reasons.</li>
        <li>Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and 
            manipulation of data.</li>
        <li>Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry.</li>
        <li>Scientific explanations must adhere to criteria such as: 
            a proposed explanation must be logically consistent; it 
            must abide by the rules of evidence; it must be open to 
            questions and possible modification; and it must be based 
            on historical and current scientific knowledge.</li>
        <li>Results of scientific inquiry--new knowledge and methods--
            emerge from different types of investigations and public 
            communication among scientists.</li>
    </list>
    <p>The last statement above acknowledges that--despite 
        generalizations that can be listed--there are many paths to 
        gaining new scientific knowledge. That is what makes studying 
        scientific processes so important. Learning how to acquire 
        the abilities to do and understand scientific inquiry may be 
        the most important and useful thing you learn in this 
        course.</p>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Appendix is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<level1>
    <pagenum id="IDAKAKN">A-1</pagenum> 
    <h1>Appendix A The Scientific Method vs. Scientific Methods</h1>
    <p>Scientists deepen their knowledge and understanding of the 
        natural world by observing and manipulating their environment. 
        The inquiry approach used by scientists to solve problems and 
        seek knowledge has led to vast increases in understanding how 
        nature works. Many efforts have been made to formalize and 
        list the steps that scientists use to generate and test new 
        knowledge. You may have been asked to learn the "steps" of 
        the Scientific Method, such as Make Observations, Define the 
        Problem, and so on. But no one comes to an understanding of 
        how scientific inquiry works by simply learning a list of 
        steps or definitions of words.</p>
    <p>Although you may not go on to become a research scientist, it 
        is important that all students acquire the ability to conduct 
        scientific inquiry. Why? Everyone is confronted daily with 
        endless streams of facts and claims. What should be accepted 
        as true? What should be discarded? Having well-developed ways 
        to evaluate and test claims is essential in deciding between 
        valid and deceptive information.</p>
    <p>What abilities are needed to conduct scientific inquiry? 
        According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), 
        they include the abilities to</p>
    <list type="ul">
        <li>identify questions and concepts that guide scientific 
            investigations.</li>
        <li>design and conduct scientific investigations.</li>
        <li>use technology and mathematics to improve investigations 
            and communications.</li>
        <li>formulate and revise scientific explanations and models 
            using logic and evidence.</li>
        <li>recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.</li>
        <li>communicate and defend a scientific argument.</li>
    </list>
    <p>These skills are necessary for both doing and learning science. 
        They are also important skills to evaluate information in 
        daily living. You can only acquire these skills through 
        practice--by doing exercises and investigations such as those 
        contained in this textbook.</p>
    <pagenum id="IDAJBKN">A-2</pagenum> 
    <p>Even with all the abilities listed above, doing science is a 
        complex behavior. The NSES outlines the ideas that all students 
        should know and understand about the practices of science:</p>
    <list type="ul">
        <li>Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or 
            designed systems function.</li>
        <li>Scientists conduct investigations for a wide variety of 
            reasons.</li>
        <li>Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and 
            manipulation of data.</li>
        <li>Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry.</li>
        <li>Scientific explanations must adhere to criteria such as: 
            a proposed explanation must be logically consistent; it 
            must abide by the rules of evidence; it must be open to 
            questions and possible modification; and it must be based 
            on historical and current scientific knowledge.</li>
        <li>Results of scientific inquiry--new knowledge and methods--
            emerge from different types of investigations and public 
            communication among scientists.</li>
    </list>
    <p>The last statement above acknowledges that--despite 
        generalizations that can be listed--there are many paths to 
        gaining new scientific knowledge. That is what makes studying 
        scientific processes so important. Learning how to acquire 
        the abilities to do and understand scientific inquiry may be 
        the most important and useful thing you learn in this 
        course.</p>
</level1>

Information Object: Glossary

Definition

Glossaries are usually found in technical works such as manuals and are intended for the use of the general reader who may be unfamiliar with some of the terminology in the body of the work. Words to be defined in a glossary are arranged in alphabetical order, each on a separate line, followed by its definition.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Glossaries form part of the rear matter of a work and are usually marked with a level1 tag. The glossary terms and their definitions follow the markup used for definition lists.

See Block Elements: Information Object: List for a more complete discussion of this topic.

The Glossary may be subdivided alphabetically in which case each alphabetic division would be marked with a lower level tag.

Syntax

<level1 class="glossary">
    <h1>Glossary</h1>
    <dl>
        <dt>... first term</dt>
        <dd>... definition of first term</dd>
        <dt>... second term</dt>
        <dd>... definition of second term</dd>
    </dl>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1

<level1 class="glossary">
    <pagenum id="page_831" page="normal">831</pagenum>
    <h1>Glossary</h1>
    <p>For unfamiliar terms used in the definitions below, look for
    entries elsewhere in the glossary...</p>
    <level2 class="alphabetic_division ">
        <h2>A</h2>
        <dl>
            <dt>AA, Aas.</dt>
            <dd>Abbreviation for author's alterations(s) used in
            correcting proof.</dd>
            <dt>access</dt>
            <dd>In computer terminology, the ability to reach and make use
            of electronically stored data.</dd>
            <!-- ... -->
        </dl>
        <!-- ... -->
    </level2>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 426 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman Page 427 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Pages 426-427 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<level1 class="glossary">
    <pagenum id="IDAKEL">426</pagenum>
    <h1>Glossary</h1>
    <p>Highlighted terms appear as vocabulary words on the 
        indicated lesson pages. <prodnote render="optional">In 
        this digital text, all highlighted terms are identified with 
        a &lt;span&gt; of class "vocabulary".</prodnote></p>
    <dl>
        <dt>AB form</dt>
            <dd>A musical plan that has two sections or parts. 
                p. 167</dd>
        <dt>ABA form </dt>
            <dd>A musical plan that has three sections or parts. 
                The first and last sections are the same. The 
                middle section is different. p. 201</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">accent</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/accmark.png" alt="Accent" 
                width="22" height="13"/> Gives extra importance 
                to a note in a rhythm pattern. p. 78</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">accompaniment</span></dt>
            <dd>Music that is performed to go with a melody. p. 
                142</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">bar line</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/bline.png" alt="Bar line" 
                width="36" height="20"/> A vertical line drawn 
                through a staff to separate measures. p. 83</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">borduns</span></dt>
            <dd>Repeated patterns used to accompany music. They 
                have two pitches, one of which is the home tone. 
                p. 419</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">call and response</span></dt>
            <dd>A style of choral singing. First one person sings 
                the call and then the rest of the chorus sings a 
                response, or an answer. p. 19</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">coda</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/coda.png" width="14" 
                height="13" alt="Coda"/> A short section added to 
                the end of a song. p. 168</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>crescendo</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/cres.png" alt="Crescendo" 
                width="35" height="16"/> A word or music symbol 
                that tells the performer to get gradually louder. 
                p. 116</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">cumulative song</span></dt>
            <dd>A song that gets longer as each new verse is 
                added. p. 360</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>D.C. al Fine</em></span>
            </dt>
            <dd>An Italian phrase that tells the performer to go 
                back to the beginning of the song and sing until 
                the word Fine. p. 200</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">dynamics</span></dt>
            <dd>A word that describes the loudness or softness of 
                music. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>fermata</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/formata.png" alt="Fermata" 
                width="27" height="17"/> A symbol that tells a 
                performer to hold a note for an extra long time. 
                p. 191</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">form</span></dt>
            <dd>The order of same and different ideas in music. 
                p. 52</dd>
        <dt><em>forte</em></dt>
            <dd><em><strong>f</strong></em> loud. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">improvise</span></dt>
            <dd>To make up music as it is being performed. p. 
                219</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">introduction</span></dt>
            <dd>A short section placed at the beginning of a song. 
                p. 345</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">ledger line</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p426-001.png" alt="Ledger 
                line" width="15" height="19"/> An extra line used 
                for pitches above or below the staff. p. 101</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>legato</em></span></dt>
            <dd>Describes a melody that has smooth, connected 
                pitches p. 152</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">measure </span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p426-002.png" alt="Measure" 
                width="44" height="20"/> A grouping of beats 
                separated by bar lines. p. 83</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">melody</span></dt>
            <dd>A row of pitches that move up or down or repeat. 
                p. 24</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">meter</span></dt>
            <dd>The way beats of music are grouped together. They 
                are often in sets of two or sets of three. p. 
                196</dd>
    <pagenum id="IDAXL4Q">427</pagenum>
        <dt>note</dt>
            <dd>A symbol for a musical sound. p. 78</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">ostinato</span></dt>
            <dd>A short repeated pattern. p. 35</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pentatonic</span></dt>
            <dd>Songs that have only five pitches. p. 136</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">percussion</span></dt>
            <dd>Instruments that are played by shaking, scraping, 
                or striking. p. 102</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">phrase</span></dt>
            <dd>A musical sentence. p. 126</dd>
        <dt><em>piano </em></dt>
            <dd><em>p</em> soft. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pitch</span></dt>
            <dd>Another word for a musical note. Pitch is how 
                high or how low a note sounds. p. 21</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pitch syllables</span></dt>
            <dd>Syllables used to name pitches, for example: 
                <em>do</em>, <em>re</em>,<em> mi</em>, <em>so</em>, 
                and <em>la</em>. p. 27</dd>
        <dt>refrain</dt>
            <dd>The section of a song that repeats, using the same 
                melody and words. p. 191</dd>
        <dt>repeated pitches</dt>
            <dd>Two or more pitches in a row that are the same. 
                p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">rhythm</span></dt>
            <dd>A pattern of long and short sounds and silences. 
                p. 10</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">rhythm syllables</span></dt>
            <dd>Syllables used to name specific rhythmic units. 
                p. 17</dd>
        <dt>section </dt>
            <dd>A part of a song or instrumental work. p. 166</dd>
        <dt>skip </dt>
            <dd>Moving from one pitch to another, skipping one or 
                more pitches in between. p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>staccato</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/staccato.png" 
                alt="Staccato" width="11" height="24"/> Describes 
                a melody that has short, separated pitches. p. 
                152</dd>
        <dt>staff</dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p427-001.png" alt="Staff" 
                width="43" height="20"/> A set of five horizontal 
                lines on which music notes are written. p. 27</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">steady beat</span></dt>
            <dd>The regular pulse found in most music. p. 8</dd>
        <dt>step </dt>
            <dd>Moving from one pitch to another with no skipped 
                pitches in between. p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">strong beat</span></dt>
            <dd>The most important beat in a rhythm pattern. p. 
                50</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">style </span></dt>
            <dd>The special sound that is created when music 
                elements, such as rhythm and timbre, are combined. 
                p. 254</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">technique</span></dt>
            <dd>The special skill used to play an instrument. 
                p. 65</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">tempo</span></dt>
            <dd>The speed of the beat in music. p. 42</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">texture</span></dt>
            <dd>How thin or thick the music sounds. p. 71</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">tie</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/2qtrnote.png" alt="Two 
                quarter notes with a tie" width="29" height="26"/> 
                A musical symbol that joins two notes together to 
                create a longer sound. p. 125</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">timbre</span></dt>
            <dd>The special sound each instrument makes. p. 
                64</dd>
    </dl>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Glossary is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<level1>
    <pagenum id="IDAKEL">426</pagenum>
    <h1>Glossary</h1>
    <p>Highlighted terms appear as vocabulary words on the 
        indicated lesson pages. <prodnote render="optional">In 
        this digital text, all highlighted terms are identified with 
        a &lt;span&gt; of class "vocabulary".</prodnote></p>
    <dl>
        <dt>AB form</dt>
            <dd>A musical plan that has two sections or parts. 
                p. 167</dd>
        <dt>ABA form </dt>
            <dd>A musical plan that has three sections or parts. 
                The first and last sections are the same. The 
                middle section is different. p. 201</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">accent</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/accmark.png" alt="" 
                width="22" height="13"/> Gives extra importance 
                to a note in a rhythm pattern. p. 78</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">accompaniment</span></dt>
            <dd>Music that is performed to go with a melody. p. 
                142</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">bar line</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/bline.png" alt="" 
                width="36" height="20"/> A vertical line drawn 
                through a staff to separate measures. p. 83</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">borduns</span></dt>
            <dd>Repeated patterns used to accompany music. They 
                have two pitches, one of which is the home tone. 
                p. 419</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">call and response</span></dt>
            <dd>A style of choral singing. First one person sings 
                the call and then the rest of the chorus sings a 
                response, or an answer. p. 19</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">coda</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/coda.png" width="14" 
                height="13" alt=""/> A short section added to 
                the end of a song. p. 168</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>crescendo</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/cres.png" alt="" 
                width="35" height="16"/> A word or music symbol 
                that tells the performer to get gradually louder. 
                p. 116</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">cumulative song</span></dt>
            <dd>A song that gets longer as each new verse is 
                added. p. 360</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>D.C. al Fine</em></span>
            </dt>
            <dd>An Italian phrase that tells the performer to go 
                back to the beginning of the song and sing until 
                the word Fine. p. 200</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">dynamics</span></dt>
            <dd>A word that describes the loudness or softness of 
                music. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>fermata</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/formata.png" alt="" 
                width="27" height="17"/> A symbol that tells a 
                performer to hold a note for an extra long time. 
                p. 191</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">form</span></dt>
            <dd>The order of same and different ideas in music. 
                p. 52</dd>
        <dt><em>forte</em></dt>
            <dd><em><strong>f</strong></em> loud. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">improvise</span></dt>
            <dd>To make up music as it is being performed. p. 
                219</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">introduction</span></dt>
            <dd>A short section placed at the beginning of a song. 
                p. 345</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">ledger line</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p426-001.png" alt="" width="15" height="19"/> An extra line used 
                for pitches above or below the staff. p. 101</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>legato</em></span></dt>
            <dd>Describes a melody that has smooth, connected 
                pitches p. 152</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">measure </span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p426-002.png" alt="" 
                width="44" height="20"/> A grouping of beats 
                separated by bar lines. p. 83</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">melody</span></dt>
            <dd>A row of pitches that move up or down or repeat. 
                p. 24</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">meter</span></dt>
            <dd>The way beats of music are grouped together. They 
                are often in sets of two or sets of three. p. 
                196</dd>
    <pagenum id="IDAXL4Q">427</pagenum>
        <dt>note</dt>
            <dd>A symbol for a musical sound. p. 78</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">ostinato</span></dt>
            <dd>A short repeated pattern. p. 35</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pentatonic</span></dt>
            <dd>Songs that have only five pitches. p. 136</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">percussion</span></dt>
            <dd>Instruments that are played by shaking, scraping, 
                or striking. p. 102</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">phrase</span></dt>
            <dd>A musical sentence. p. 126</dd>
        <dt><em>piano </em></dt>
            <dd><em>p</em> soft. p. 6</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pitch</span></dt>
            <dd>Another word for a musical note. Pitch is how 
                high or how low a note sounds. p. 21</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">pitch syllables</span></dt>
            <dd>Syllables used to name pitches, for example: 
                <em>do</em>, <em>re</em>,<em> mi</em>, <em>so</em>, 
                and <em>la</em>. p. 27</dd>
        <dt>refrain</dt>
            <dd>The section of a song that repeats, using the same 
                melody and words. p. 191</dd>
        <dt>repeated pitches</dt>
            <dd>Two or more pitches in a row that are the same. 
                p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">rhythm</span></dt>
            <dd>A pattern of long and short sounds and silences. 
                p. 10</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">rhythm syllables</span></dt>
            <dd>Syllables used to name specific rhythmic units. 
                p. 17</dd>
        <dt>section </dt>
            <dd>A part of a song or instrumental work. p. 166</dd>
        <dt>skip </dt>
            <dd>Moving from one pitch to another, skipping one or 
                more pitches in between. p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary"><em>staccato</em></span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/staccato.png" 
                alt="" width="11" height="24"/> Describes 
                a melody that has short, separated pitches. p. 
                152</dd>
        <dt>staff</dt>
            <dd><img src="images/U15C00/p427-001.png" alt="" 
                width="43" height="20"/> A set of five horizontal 
                lines on which music notes are written. p. 27</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">steady beat</span></dt>
            <dd>The regular pulse found in most music. p. 8</dd>
        <dt>step </dt>
            <dd>Moving from one pitch to another with no skipped 
                pitches in between. p. 61</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">strong beat</span></dt>
            <dd>The most important beat in a rhythm pattern. p. 
                50</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">style </span></dt>
            <dd>The special sound that is created when music 
                elements, such as rhythm and timbre, are combined. 
                p. 254</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">technique</span></dt>
            <dd>The special skill used to play an instrument. 
                p. 65</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">tempo</span></dt>
            <dd>The speed of the beat in music. p. 42</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">texture</span></dt>
            <dd>How thin or thick the music sounds. p. 71</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">tie</span></dt>
            <dd><img src="images/thruout/2qtrnote.png" alt="" width="29" height="26"/> 
                A musical symbol that joins two notes together to 
                create a longer sound. p. 125</dd>
        <dt><span class="vocabulary">timbre</span></dt>
            <dd>The special sound each instrument makes. p. 
                64</dd>
    </dl>
</level1>

Information Object: Bibliography

Definition

A bibliography is a list of books and other references used by an author most commonly in scholarly works. It is usually placed in the rear matter of a book before the index. Some bibliographical lists are placed at the ends of chapters to which they apply, particularly in textbooks.

Bibliographies may take a number of forms:

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

A bibliography occurring at the end of a book is in the rear matter and is most often marked with a <level1> tag. A bibliography may also occur at the end of a chapter, in which case it is regarded as one section of that chapter and is marked at the same level as a section. There may be alphabetic or other divisions which would be marked one level lower than the bibliography itself. The contents of a bibliography are generally marked up as a list and the individual entries are marked with the <cite> tag. In addition, <author> and <title> tags may be used within the cite tag.

Syntax

<level1 class="bibliography">
    <h1>Bibliography</h1>
    <list>...</list>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1: Bibliography as part of the rear matter at the end of a book.

<level1 class="bibliography">
    <h1>Works by Isak Dinesen</h1>
    <level2 class="section">
    <h2>Books</h2>
    <list type="pl">
        <li><cite><author>Dinesen, Isak</author>.
          <title>Syv fantastiske Forteollinger</title>.
          Copenhagen: Reitzels, 1937.</cite></li>
        <li><cite><author>Dinesen, Isak</author>.
          <title>Out of Africa</title>. London: Putnam, 
          1937.</cite></li>
    </list>
    </level2>
    <level2 class="section">
        <h2>Essays</h2>
        <list type="pl">
           <li><cite><author>Blixen, Karen,
             [Osceola]</author>. <title>"Eneboerne."</title>
             Tilskueren, August 1907, pp.609-35.</cite></li>
           <li><cite><author>[Osceola]</author>.
             <title>"Familien de Cats."</title> Tilskueren, January
             1909, pp. 1-19.</cite></li>
        </list>
    </level2>
</level1>

Example 2: Bibliography at the end of a chapter in a textbook.

<level1 class="chapter">
   <h1>Chapter 20 Human Development</h1>
   <level2 class="section">
       <h2>Human Embryo at 3 Weeks Postovulation</h2>
       <p>The period of the embryo is characterized by rapid
       growth...external form.</p>
       <!-- ... -->
   </level2>
   <level2 class="bibliography">
       <h2>Selected Readings</h2>
       <list type="pl">
           <li><cite><author>Arey, L.</author> 1965.
             <title>Developmental Anatomy</title>. 7th ed. Saunders.
             Philadelphia.</cite></li>
           <li><cite><author>Boving. B.G.</author> 1965.
             <title>Anatomy of Reproduction</title>. In J.P.
             Greenhill...</cite></li>
       <!-- ... -->
       </list>
   </level2>
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 394 from Time for Fairy Tales Old and New by Scott Foresman

Page 394 from Time for Fairy Tales Old and New by Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<level1 class="bibliography">
    <pagenum id="IDAXIEL">394</pagenum>
    <h1>Bibliography</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>Collections of Folk Tales</h2>
        <level3>
            <h3>African and Ethiopian</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Courlander, Harold, and Herzog, George</author>,
                <title>The Cow-Tail Switch, and Other West African
                Stories</title>, ill. by Madge Lee Chastain, Holt, 1947.
                Seventeen tales of West Africa, told in lively style and
                revealing much of the customs and life of the people.
                10-12</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Courlander, Harold, and Leslau, Wolf</author>,
                <title>The Fire on the Mountain and Other Ethiopian
                Stories</title>, ill. by Robert W. Kane, Holt, 1950. Ethiopian
                folk tales outstanding in style, illustrations, and content.
                10-14</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Elliot, Geraldine</author>, <title>The Long Grass
                Whispers</title>, ill. by Sheila Hawkins, Putnam's 1939. These
                tales from Central Africa are reminiscent of both Aesop's fables
                and Uncle Remus. 8-10</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Arabian</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Colum, Patrick, ed.</author>, <title>The Arabian
                Nights</title>, ill. by Eric Pape, Macmillan, 1923. This is a
                useful source for teachers since Mr. Colum's writing is good and
                in keeping with the stories. 10-14</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Housman, Laurence, ed.</author>, <title>Stories
                from the Arabian Nights</title>, ill. by Edmund Dulac, Doran,
                1923. Exquisite illustrations add beauty to this distinguished
                text. 10-14</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Lang, Andrew, ed.</author>, <title>Arabian
                Nights</title>, ill. by Vera Bock, Longmans, 1946. 
                10-14</cite></p>
            <p><cite><title>The Arabian Nights Entertainments</title>, ill. by
                Milo Winter, Rand Mcnally, 1914. A good school edition, well
                illustrated and adapted for children. 10-14</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Chinese</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Bishop, Claire</author>, <title>The Five Chinese
                Brothers</title>, ill. by Kurt Wiese, coward-McCann, 1938. This
                Chinese version of five brothers, each with a special, magical
                gift, has been a universal favorite ever since it appeared.
                5-10</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Chrisman, Arthur Bowie</author>, <title>Treasures
                Long Hidden: Old Tales and New Tales of the East</title>, ill.
                by Weda Yap, Dutton, 1941. Folk tales retold with the humor and
                sincerity characteristic of the author's adaptations.
                9-12</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Hsi Yu Chi</author>, <title>The adventures of
                Monkey</title>, ill. by Kurt Wiese, adapted from the Chinese by
                Arthur Waley, Day, 1944. Monkey is the traditional Chinese
                Mickey Mouse--adventurous, impudent, and curious. His antics
                and magic are good fun but decidedly intellectual.
                12-16</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Metzger, Berta</author>, <title>Picture Tales from
                the Chinese</title>, ill. by Eleanor F. Lattimore, Lippincott,
                1934. Following the usual "Picture Tales" pattern, these stories
                are for younger children than the other collections.
                7-10</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Ritchie, Alice</author>, <title>The Treasure of
                Li-Po</title>, ill. by T. Ritchie, Harcourt, Brace, 1949. These
                six Chinese fairy tales have dignity and distinction, wit and
                wisdom. They are delightful to tell or to read aloud or to be
                read by imaginative children. 10-14</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Czechoslovakian</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Fillmore, Parker, ed.</author>, <title>Czechoslovak
                Fairy Tales</title>, ill. by Jan Matulka, Harcourt, Brace,
                1919.</cite></p>
            <p><cite><title>The Shoemaker's Apron</title>, ill. by Jan Matulka,
                Harcourt, Brace, 1920.</cite></p>
            <p><cite>Parker Fillmore has retold rather than translated these
                tales from the great collections of Erben and Nemcova.
                8-12</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>English</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Brown, Marcia</author>, <title>Dick Whittington and
                His Cat</title>, ill. by author, Scribner's 1950. A lively,
                readable adaptation of this classic hero tale with strong
                linoleum cuts in brown and black. 4-8</cite></p>
            <p><cite><author>Jacobs, Joseph, ed.</author>, <title>English Fairy
                Tales</title>, Putnam's, n.d. <title>More English Fairy
                Tales</title>, Putnam's n.d.</cite></p>
            <p>These are not only reliable sources for the favorite English
                tales, but are also appealing to children in format and
                illustrations. 9-12</p>
            <p><cite><author>Tregarthen, Enys</author>, <title>Piskey Folk, A
                Book of Cornish Legends</title>, Day, 1940. A rare collection
                for the story teller, full of the pranks of the piskeys.
                8-12</cite></p>
            <p><cite><title>The White Ring</title>, ed. by Elizabeth Yates, ill.
                by Nora S. Unwin. Harcourt, Brace, 1949. An exquisite Celtic
                fairy tale about the Cornish fairies. To be read aloud.
                7-12</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Eskimo</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Gillham, Charles Edward</author>, <title>Beyond the
                Clapping Mountains: Eskimo Stories from Alaska</title>, ill. by
                Chanimum, Macmillan, 1943. Illustrated by an Eskimo girl, these
                are unusual and highly imaginative tales. 10-12</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Filipino</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Sechrist, Elizabeth H.</author>, <title>Once in the
                First Times</title>, ill. by John Sheppard, Macrae-Smith, 1949.
                This small book includes fifty Filipino folk tales--"why"
                stories, tales of the creation, legends, hero tales, and
                romances. These brief stories reflect Spanish and American
                influences, but have a simple charm of their own.
                8-12</cite></p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Finnish</h3>
            <p><cite><author>Baldwin, James</author>, <title>The Sampo</title>,
                ill. by N.C. Wyeth, Scribner's, 1912. Good adaptations of stories from the Finnish</cite></p>
        </level3>
    </level2>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Bibliography is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:


<level1>
    <pagenum id="IDAXIEL">394</pagenum>
    <h1>Bibliography</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>Collections of Folk Tales</h2>
        <level3>
            <h3>African and Ethiopian</h3>
            <p>Courlander, Harold, and Herzog, George, <em>The 
                Cow-Tail Switch, and Other West African Stories</em>, 
                ill. by Madge Lee Chastain, Holt, 1947. Seventeen 
                tales of West Africa, told in lively style and 
                revealing much of the customs and life of the people. 
                10-12</p>
            <p>Courlander, Harold, and Leslau, Wolf, <em>The Fire on 
                the Mountain and Other Ethiopian Stories</em>, ill. by 
                Robert W. Kane, Holt, 1950. Ethiopian folk tales 
                outstanding in style, illustrations, and content. 
                10-14</p>
            <p>Elliot, Geraldine, <em>The Long Grass Whispers</em>, 
                ill. by Sheila Hawkins, Putnam's 1939. These tales 
                from Central Africa are reminiscent of both Aesop's 
                fables and Uncle Remus. 8-10</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Arabian</h3>
            <p>Colum, Patrick, ed., <em>The Arabian Nights</em>, ill. 
                by Eric Pape, Macmillan, 1923. This is a useful 
                source for teachers since Mr. Colum's writing is good 
                and in keeping with the stories. 10-14</p>
            <p>Housman, Laurence, ed., <em>Stories from the Arabian 
                Nights</em>, ill. by Edmund Dulac, Doran, 1923. 
                Exquisite illustrations add beauty to this 
                distinguished text. 10-14</p>
            <p>Lang, Andrew, ed., <em>Arabian Nights</em>, ill. by 
                Vera Bock, Longmans, 1946. 10-14</p>
            <p><em>The Arabian Nights Entertainments</em>, ill. by 
                Milo Winter, Rand Mcnally, 1914. A good school 
                edition, well illustrated and adapted for children. 
                10-14</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Chinese</h3>
            <p>Bishop, Claire, <em>The Five Chinese Brothers</em>, 
                ill. by Kurt Wiese, coward-McCann, 1938. This Chinese 
                version of five brothers, each with a special, 
                magical gift, has been a universal favorite ever since 
                it appeared. 5-10</p>
            <p>Chrisman, Arthur Bowie, <em>Treasures Long Hidden: Old 
                Tales and New Tales of the East</em>, ill. by Weda 
                Yap, Dutton, 1941. Folk tales retold with the humor 
                and sincerity characteristic of the author's 
                adaptations. 9-12</p>
            <p>Hsi Yu Chi, <em>The adventures of Monkey</em>, ill. by 
                Kurt Wiese, adapted from the Chinese by Arthur Waley, 
                Day, 1944. Monkey is the traditional Chinese Mickey 
                Mouse--"adventurous, impudent, and curious. His antics 
                and magic are good fun but decidedly intellectual. 
                12-16</p>
            <p>Metzger, Berta, <em>Picture Tales from the Chinese</em>, 
                ill. by Eleanor F. Lattimore, Lippincott, 1934. 
                Following the usual "Picture Tales" pattern, these 
                stories are for younger children than the other 
                collections. 7-10</p>
            <p>Ritchie, Alice, <em>The Treasure of Li-Po</em>, ill. 
                by T. Ritchie, Harcourt, Brace, 1949. These six 
                Chinese fairy tales have dignity and distinction, wit 
                and wisdom. They are delightful to tell or to read 
                aloud or to be read by imaginative children. 10-14</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Czechoslovakian</h3>
            <p>Fillmore, Parker, ed., <em>Czechoslovak Fairy 
                Tales</em>, ill. by Jan Matulka, Harcourt, Brace, 
                1919.</p>
            <p><em>The Shoemaker's Apron</em>, ill. by Jan Matulka, 
                Harcourt, Brace, 1920.</p>
            <p>Parker Fillmore has retold rather than translated 
                these tales from the great collections of Erben and 
                Nemcova. 8-12</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>English</h3>
            <p>Brown, Marcia, <em>Dick Whittington and His Cat</em>, 
                ill. by author, Scribner's 1950. A lively, readable 
                adaptation of this classic hero tale with strong 
                linoleum cuts in brown and black. 4-8</p>
            <p>Jacobs, Joseph, ed., <em>English Fairy Tales</em>, 
                Putnam's, n.d. <em>More English Fairy Tales</em>, 
                Putnam's n.d.</p>
            <p>These are not only reliable sources for the favorite 
                English tales, but are also appealing to children in 
                format and illustrations. 9-12</p>
            <p>Tregarthen, Enys, <em>Piskey Folk, A Book of Cornish 
                Legends</em>, Day, 1940. A rare collection for the 
                story teller, full of the pranks of the piskeys. 
                8-12</p>
            <p><em>The White Ring</em>, ed. by Elizabeth Yates, ill. 
                by Nora S. Unwin. Harcourt, Brace, 1949. An exquisite 
                Celtic fairy tale about the Cornish fairies. To be 
                read aloud. 7-12</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Eskimo</h3>
            <p>Gillham, Charles Edward, <em>Beyond the Clapping 
                Mountains: Eskimo Stories from Alaska</em>, ill. by 
                Chanimum, Macmillan, 1943. Illustrated by an Eskimo 
                girl, these are unusual and highly imaginative tales. 
                10-12</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Filipino</h3>
            <p>Sechrist, Elizabeth H., <em>Once in the First 
                Times</em>, ill. by John Sheppard, Macrae-Smith, 1949. 
                This small book includes fifty Filipino folk tales--
                "why" stories, tales of the creation, legends, hero 
                tales, and romances. These brief stories reflect 
                Spanish and American influences, but have a simple 
                charm of their own. 8-12</p>
        </level3>
        <level3>
            <h3>Finnish</h3>
            <p>Baldwin, James, <em>The Sampo</em>, ill. by N.C. Wyeth, 
                Scribner's, 1912. Good adaptations of stories from 
                the Finnish</p>
        </level3>
    </level2>
</level1>

Information Object: Index

Definition

An index provides the reader with the page or page numbers of pertinent words or statements within the body of the text.

Indices usually include both proper-name and subject entries at a minimum. If the material is complex two indices are prepared: one of persons only and one of subjects and other proper names. Some indices (e.g. poetry) may require a subject index, and index of titles and first lines.

Indices are comprised of entries: the principal subdivision of an index. It consists of a heading which identifies the subject of the entry; and a locator which tells the reader where to find material pertaining to the subject. In most cases, it is a page number or sequence of page numbers but it may also be a section number, chapter or paragraph number.

Bibliographic Reference

Markup

Indices form part of the rear matter of a work and are usually marked with a level1 tag. The index may be subdivided alphabetically in which case each alphabetic division is marked with a lower level heading. The index entries follow the markup used for nested lists.

See Block Elements: Information Object: List

To make an index as useful as possible in a DTB, links should be included from each page reference in the index to the page specified.

Syntax

<level1 class="index">
    <h1>Index</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>A</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic>...</lic>
                <lic>...</lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
</level1>

Examples

Example 1

<level1 class="index">
   <pagenum page="normal" id="pp197">197</pagenum>
   <h1 class="index">Index</h1>
   <level2 class="alphabetic-division">
       <h2>A</h2>
       <list type="ul" class="index">
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">About-Point technique,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-55">55</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Acronym,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-116">116</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Action plans for good reading,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-5">5</a> </lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Affixes,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-132">132-134</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Antonym, finding word meaning through context,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-126">126</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Application level thinking,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-89">89-90</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Association, for improved memory,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-117">117</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Attack plan, word,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-134">134</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Audience, communicating through good writing to,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-141">141</a>,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-155">155</a></lic>
           </li>
       </list>
   </level2>
   <level2 class="alphabetic-division">
       <h2>B</h2>
       <list type="ul" class="index">
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Bookmark, Question Mark,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-28">28</a></lic>
           </li>
           <li>
               <lic class="index-line">Brainstorming, for writing narrative,</lic>
               <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-76">76-78</a></lic>
           </li>
           <!-- ... -->
       </list>
   </level2>
   <!-- ... -->
</level1>

Illustrated Example 1

Page Sample:

(Show/Hide)
Page 434 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman Page 436 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Pages 434 and 436 from Making Music (0-382-36570-4) by Pearson Scott Foresman

Sample Code:

(Show/Hide)
    	
<level1 class="index">
    <pagenum id="IDSLIE">434</pagenum>
    <h1>Index of Songs</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>A</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">A-Tisket, A-Tasket,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-238">p. 238</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-24</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Abiyoyo,</em></lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-108">p. 108</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-25</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Achshav</em> (Awake! Awake!),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-64">p. 64</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Adana ya gidelim</em> (Let's Go to Adana),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-142">p. 142</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-32</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">All Around the Buttercup,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-170">p. 170</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-26</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">All the Way Around the World,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-258">p. 258</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-19</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Allá en la fuente</em> (There at the Spring), </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-92">p. 92</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-48</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Amarillo Armadillo,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-82">p. 82</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-33</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">America,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-403">p. 403</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-11</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">America, I Hear You Singing,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-402">p. 402</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-9</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Are You Sleeping? <em>(Frère Jacques)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-125">p. 125</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Awake! Awake! <em>(Achshav)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-64">p. 64</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Ayelivi,</em></lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-70">p. 70</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-9</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>B</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Banana,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-114">p. 114</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong> CD 4-32</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Banjo Sam,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-314">p. 314</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Bob-a-Needle,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-232">p. 232</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-19</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Boogie Chant and Dance (speech piece),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-78">p. 78</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Boysie,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-195">p. 195</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-25</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">But the Cat Came Back,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-190">p. 190</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-16</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>C</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Caballito blanco</em> (Little White Pony),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-193">p. 193</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-18</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Chanukah Is Here!</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-382">p. 382</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-15</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Chawe chidyo chitalic'chero</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-297">p. 297</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Che che koolay</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-266">p. 266</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-32</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Cheki, morena</em> (Shake It!),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-180">p. 180</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Chicka Hanka,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-211">p. 211</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>"Chirimbolo"</em> Game, The <em>(El juego  
                    chirimbolo)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-54">p. 54</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-28</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Christmas, Don't Be Late,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-386">p. 386</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-27</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Chuhwuht</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-356">p. 356</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Ciranda</em> (A Ring of Roses),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-272">p. 272</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Clouds of Gray,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-56">p. 56</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-32</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Come Running, You Shepherds <em>(O laufet, ihr 
                    Hirten)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-384">p. 384</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Cookie,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-172">p. 172</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-31</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Crawfish!</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-86">p. 86</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-41</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Crocodile, The,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-362">p. 362</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-19</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>D</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Deau-deau, ti pitit maman </em>(Sleep, My Little 
                    One)</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-306">p. 306</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Der sad to katte</em> (Two Cats),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-300">p. 300</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-5</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Deux cocodries </em>(Two Crocodiles),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-364">p. 364</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-21</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Dinah,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-120">p. 120</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-39</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Dinosaur Dance, The,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-168">p. 168</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-24</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Diou shou juan'er </em>(Hide the Scarf),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-277">p. 277</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Don't Dump Trash,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-318">p. 318</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-26</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Down, Down, Baby,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-32">p. 32</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-41</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Down the Ohio,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-60">p. 60</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-42</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Drum, The <em>(El tambor)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-274">p. 274</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-8</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Duck Dance,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-249">p. 249</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-9</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>E</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Ein Männlein steht im Walde</em> (A Little Man
                    in the Woods),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-90">p. 90</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-43</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>El coqu--</em> (The Little Frog),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-292">p. 292</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-36</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>El flor'n</em> (The Flower),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-246">p. 246</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>El juego chirimbolo</em> (The <em>"Chirimbolo"</em>
                Game),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-54">p. 54</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-27</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>El tambor</em> (The Drum),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-274">p. 274</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-7</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>El tren</em> (The Train),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-260">p. 260</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-21</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Elephant, An (Un elefante),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-160">p. 160</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>En nuestra Tierra tan linda,</em></lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-335">p. 335</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-9</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Ev'ry Kind of Music,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-226">p. 226</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-14</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Every Morning When I Wake Up,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-320">p. 320</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-28</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>F</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Falling Rain,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-328">p. 328</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Farewell <em>(Haere)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-285">p. 285</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-28</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Farmer's Dairy Key, The,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-182">p. 182</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-6</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Flower, The <em>(El florón)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-246">p. 246</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD  9-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Four in a Boat,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-46">p. 46</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Free at Last,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-396">p. 396</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-40</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Frère Jacques</em> (Are You Sleeping?),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-125">p. 125</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Frog in the Millpond,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-44">p. 44</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-8</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">From Sea to Shining Sea,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-342">p. 342</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-19</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Fruit <em>(Perot)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-378">p. 378</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-10</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>G</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Glad to Have a Friend Like You,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-228">p. 228</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-16</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Go Around the Corn, Sally,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-12">p. 12</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-8</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Gonna Have a Good Time,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-4">p. 4</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Good Mornin', Blues,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-52">p. 52</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-24</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Great Big House,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-204">p. 204</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-42</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
        <!-- ... -->  
        </level2>
    <level2>
        <pagenum id="IDAH0AR">436</pagenum>
        <h2>P</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Party Tonight!</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-152">p. 152</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-50</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Perot </em>(Fruit),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-378">p. 378</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-9</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Piñon, pirulín,</em></lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-174">p. 174</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-33</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Pizza, Pizza, Daddy-o,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-28">p. 28</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-36</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Plant Four Seeds,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-130">p. 130</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-17</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Puff, the Magic Dragon,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-350">p. 350</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-28</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>R</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Rabbit Footprints,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-304">p. 304</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-11</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Ragtime Cowboy Joe,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-250">p. 250</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Rainbow, The,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-332">p. 332</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-6</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Riddle Ree (speech piece),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-34">p. 34</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-43</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Ring of Roses, A <em>(Ciranda)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-272">p. 272</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Rocky Mountain,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-98">p. 98</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-7</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Rosie, Darling Rosie,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-215">p. 215</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-5</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>S</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Same Train,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-164">p. 164</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-20</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Sawatdee tuh jah</em> (The Hello Song),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-265">p. 265</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-28</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">School Bell Sounding <em>(Ha'kyo jong)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-135">p. 135</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-23</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sea is Calm, The <em>(La mar estaba serena)</em>, </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-345">p. 345</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sea Shell,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-100">p. 100</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">See-Saw Sacradown,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-208">p. 208</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-49</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Shake It! <em>(Cheki, morena)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-180">p. 180</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>  CD 7-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Shake Thitalic 'Simmons Down,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-244">p. 244</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong> CD 8-32</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">She'll Be Comin' 'Round the Mountain,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-358">p. 358</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-15</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Shoo, Fly,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-200">p. 200</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-38</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Silver Moon Boat <em>(Xiao yin chuan)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-14">p. 14</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-14</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sing a Rainbow,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-166">p. 166</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sing Me a Story,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-346">p. 346</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-25</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Skin and Bones,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-376">p. 376</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-5</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sleep, Baby, Sleep,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-197">p. 197</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-27</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sleep, My Little One <em>(Deau-deau, ti pitit maman)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-306">p. 306</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-14</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Somebody Waiting,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-283">p. 283</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-23</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Song of the Eagle,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-248">p. 248</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-6</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Song That's Just for You, A,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-126">p. 126</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-8</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Springtime Has Come <em>(Haru ga kita)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-401">p. 401</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-6</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Star Festival <em>(Tanabata-sama)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-336">p. 336</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Step in Time,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-74">p. 74</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-19</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Strength of the Lion, The (Kou ri lengay),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-217">p. 217</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-7</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Sweet Orange <em>(Naranja dulce)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-96">p. 96</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-4</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>T</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Tall Cedar Tree,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-322">p. 322</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-30</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Tanabata-sama </em>(Star Festival),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-336">p. 336</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Thanksgiving Is Near,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-380">p. 380</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">There at the Spring<em> (Allá en la fuente)</em>, </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-92">p. 92</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-49</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Tideo,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-80">p. 80</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-26</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Time to Sing,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-8">p. 8</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-5</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Top Joined the Circle, The <em>(O pião entrou)</em>, </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-355">p. 355</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-7</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Train, The <em>(El tren)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-260">p. 260</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong> CD 9-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Tree in the Wood, The,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-360">p. 360</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-17</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Tropical Storm, The <em>(La tormenta tropical)</em>, </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-116">p. 116</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-35</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Trouble Is a Mountain,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-202">p. 202</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-40</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Two Cats <em>(Der sad to katte)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-300">p. 300</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-6</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Two Crocodiles <em>(Deux cocodries)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-364">p. 364</a> </lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-22</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Two Little Sausages (speech piece),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-79">p. 79</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-24</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>U</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Un, deux, trois</em> (One, Two, Three),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-198">p. 198</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-31</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Un elefante </em>(An Elephant),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-160">p. 160</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-12</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Un pajarito</em> (A Little Bird),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-16">p. 16</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-20</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>V</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Valentines,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-398">p. 398</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-42</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Vamos a la fiesta </em>(Let's Go to the Party), </lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-374">p. 374</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-1</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>W</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Waiting for the Traffic Light,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-107">p. 107</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong> CD 4-23</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Way Down in the Schoolyard,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-50">p. 50</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-21</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">We're All Gonna Shine Tonight,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-240">p. 240</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-27</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">What Do Animals Need?</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-288">p. 288</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-34</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">When the Saints Go Marching In,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-178">p. 178</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-41</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Who Has Seen the Wind?</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-324">p. 324</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-33</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Winter Is Over<em> (L'inverno è passato)</em>,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-400">p. 400</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-2</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>X</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line"><em>Xiao yin chuan</em> (Silver Moon Boat),</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-14">p. 14</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Y</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Yankee Doodle,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-405">p. 405</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-13</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Z</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-330">p. 330</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-4</strong></lic>
            </li>
            <li>
                <lic class="index-line">Zudio,</lic>
                <lic class="index-pg"><a href="#p-269">p. 269</a></lic>
                <lic class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-35</strong></lic>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
</level1>

    

Comments and Alternative NIMAS Examples:

(Show/Hide)

Index is not an element, optional or required. This is meant as an example on how to properly mark up commonly occurring sections of textbooks.

While the use of optional tags is recommended, if one is only using the required tag set, the above section might be formatted as follows:

    	
<level1 class="index">
    <pagenum id="IDSLIE">434</pagenum>
    <h1>Index of Songs</h1>
    <level2>
        <h2>A</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">A-Tisket, A-Tasket,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-238">p. 238</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-24</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Abiyoyo,</em></span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-108">p. 108</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-25</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Achshav</em> (Awake! Awake!),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-64">p. 64</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Adana ya gidelim</em> (Let's Go to Adana),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-142">p. 142</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-32</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">All Around the Buttercup,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-170">p. 170</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-26</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">All the Way Around the World,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-258">p. 258</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-19</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Allá en la fuente</em> (There at the Spring), </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-92">p. 92</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-48</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Amarillo Armadillo,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-82">p. 82</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-33</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">America,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-403">p. 403</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-11</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">America, I Hear You Singing,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-402">p. 402</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-9</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Are You Sleeping? <em>(Frère Jacques)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-125">p. 125</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Awake! Awake! <em>(Achshav)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-64">p. 64</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Ayelivi,</em></span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-70">p. 70</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-9</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>B</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Banana,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-114">p. 114</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong> CD 4-32</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Banjo Sam,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-314">p. 314</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Bob-a-Needle,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-232">p. 232</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-19</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Boogie Chant and Dance (speech piece),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-78">p. 78</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Boysie,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-195">p. 195</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-25</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">But the Cat Came Back,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-190">p. 190</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-16</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>C</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Caballito blanco</em> (Little White Pony),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-193">p. 193</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-18</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Chanukah Is Here!</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-382">p. 382</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-15</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Chawe chidyo chitalic'chero</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-297">p. 297</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Che che koolay</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-266">p. 266</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-32</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Cheki, morena</em> (Shake It!),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-180">p. 180</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Chicka Hanka,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-211">p. 211</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>"Chirimbolo"</em> Game, The <em>(El juego  
                    chirimbolo)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-54">p. 54</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-28</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Christmas, Don't Be Late,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-386">p. 386</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-27</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Chuhwuht</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-356">p. 356</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Ciranda</em> (A Ring of Roses),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-272">p. 272</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Clouds of Gray,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-56">p. 56</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-32</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Come Running, You Shepherds <em>(O laufet, ihr 
                    Hirten)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-384">p. 384</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Cookie,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-172">p. 172</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-31</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Crawfish!</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-86">p. 86</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-41</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Crocodile, The,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-362">p. 362</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-19</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>D</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Deau-deau, ti pitit maman </em>(Sleep, My Little 
                    One)</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-306">p. 306</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-13</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Der sad to katte</em> (Two Cats),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-300">p. 300</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-5</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Deux cocodries </em>(Two Crocodiles),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-364">p. 364</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-21</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Dinah,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-120">p. 120</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-39</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Dinosaur Dance, The,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-168">p. 168</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-24</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Diou shou juan'er </em>(Hide the Scarf),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-277">p. 277</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Don't Dump Trash,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-318">p. 318</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-26</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Down, Down, Baby,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-32">p. 32</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-41</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Down the Ohio,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-60">p. 60</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-42</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Drum, The <em>(El tambor)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-274">p. 274</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-8</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Duck Dance,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-249">p. 249</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-9</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>E</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Ein Männlein steht im Walde</em> (A Little Man
                    in the Woods),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-90">p. 90</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-43</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>El coqu--</em> (The Little Frog),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-292">p. 292</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-36</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>El flor'n</em> (The Flower),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-246">p. 246</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>El juego chirimbolo</em> (The <em>"Chirimbolo"</em>
                Game),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-54">p. 54</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-27</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>El tambor</em> (The Drum),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-274">p. 274</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-7</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>El tren</em> (The Train),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-260">p. 260</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-21</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Elephant, An (Un elefante),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-160">p. 160</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-13</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>En nuestra Tierra tan linda,</em></span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-335">p. 335</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-9</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Ev'ry Kind of Music,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-226">p. 226</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-14</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Every Morning When I Wake Up,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-320">p. 320</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-28</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>F</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Falling Rain,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-328">p. 328</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Farewell <em>(Haere)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-285">p. 285</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-28</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Farmer's Dairy Key, The,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-182">p. 182</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-6</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Flower, The <em>(El florón)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-246">p. 246</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD  9-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Four in a Boat,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-46">p. 46</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-13</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Free at Last,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-396">p. 396</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-40</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Frère Jacques</em> (Are You Sleeping?),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-125">p. 125</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Frog in the Millpond,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-44">p. 44</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-8</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">From Sea to Shining Sea,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-342">p. 342</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-19</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Fruit <em>(Perot)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-378">p. 378</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-10</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>G</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Glad to Have a Friend Like You,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-228">p. 228</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-16</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Go Around the Corn, Sally,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-12">p. 12</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-8</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Gonna Have a Good Time,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-4">p. 4</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-1</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Good Mornin', Blues,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-52">p. 52</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-24</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Great Big House,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-204">p. 204</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-42</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
        <!-- ... -->  
        </level2>
    <level2>
        <pagenum id="IDAH0AR">436</pagenum>
        <h2>P</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Party Tonight!</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-152">p. 152</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-50</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Perot </em>(Fruit),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-378">p. 378</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-9</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Piñon, pirulín,</em></span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-174">p. 174</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-33</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Pizza, Pizza, Daddy-o,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-28">p. 28</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-36</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Plant Four Seeds,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-130">p. 130</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-17</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Puff, the Magic Dragon,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-350">p. 350</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-28</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>R</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Rabbit Footprints,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-304">p. 304</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-11</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Ragtime Cowboy Joe,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-250">p. 250</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Rainbow, The,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-332">p. 332</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-6</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Riddle Ree (speech piece),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-34">p. 34</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-43</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Ring of Roses, A <em>(Ciranda)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-272">p. 272</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Rocky Mountain,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-98">p. 98</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-7</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Rosie, Darling Rosie,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-215">p. 215</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-5</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>S</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Same Train,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-164">p. 164</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-20</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Sawatdee tuh jah</em> (The Hello Song),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-265">p. 265</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-28</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">School Bell Sounding <em>(Ha'kyo jong)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-135">p. 135</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-23</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sea is Calm, The <em>(La mar estaba serena)</em>, </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-345">p. 345</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sea Shell,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-100">p. 100</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">See-Saw Sacradown,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-208">p. 208</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-49</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Shake It! <em>(Cheki, morena)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-180">p. 180</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>  CD 7-2</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Shake Thitalic 'Simmons Down,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-244">p. 244</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong> CD 8-32</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">She'll Be Comin' 'Round the Mountain,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-358">p. 358</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-15</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Shoo, Fly,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-200">p. 200</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-38</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Silver Moon Boat <em>(Xiao yin chuan)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-14">p. 14</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-14</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sing a Rainbow,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-166">p. 166</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sing Me a Story,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-346">p. 346</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-25</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Skin and Bones,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-376">p. 376</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-5</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sleep, Baby, Sleep,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-197">p. 197</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-27</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sleep, My Little One <em>(Deau-deau, ti pitit maman)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-306">p. 306</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-14</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Somebody Waiting,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-283">p. 283</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-23</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Song of the Eagle,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-248">p. 248</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-6</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Song That's Just for You, A,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-126">p. 126</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 5-8</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Springtime Has Come <em>(Haru ga kita)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-401">p. 401</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-6</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Star Festival <em>(Tanabata-sama)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-336">p. 336</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-13</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Step in Time,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-74">p. 74</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-19</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Strength of the Lion, The (Kou ri lengay),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-217">p. 217</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-7</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Sweet Orange <em>(Naranja dulce)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-96">p. 96</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-4</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>T</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Tall Cedar Tree,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-322">p. 322</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-30</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Tanabata-sama </em>(Star Festival),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-336">p. 336</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Thanksgiving Is Near,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-380">p. 380</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-13</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">There at the Spring<em> (Allá en la fuente)</em>, </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-92">p. 92</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-49</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Tideo,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-80">p. 80</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-26</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Time to Sing,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-8">p. 8</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-5</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Top Joined the Circle, The <em>(O pião entrou)</em>, </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-355">p. 355</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-7</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Train, The <em>(El tren)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-260">p. 260</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong> CD 9-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Tree in the Wood, The,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-360">p. 360</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-17</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Tropical Storm, The <em>(La tormenta tropical)</em>, </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-116">p. 116</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 4-35</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Trouble Is a Mountain,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-202">p. 202</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-40</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Two Cats <em>(Der sad to katte)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-300">p. 300</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-6</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Two Crocodiles <em>(Deux cocodries)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-364">p. 364</a> </span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 13-22</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Two Little Sausages (speech piece),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-79">p. 79</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 3-24</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>U</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Un, deux, trois</em> (One, Two, Three),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-198">p. 198</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 7-31</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Un elefante </em>(An Elephant),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-160">p. 160</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-12</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Un pajarito</em> (A Little Bird),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-16">p. 16</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-20</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>V</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Valentines,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-398">p. 398</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-42</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Vamos a la fiesta </em>(Let's Go to the Party), </span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-374">p. 374</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 14-1</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>W</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Waiting for the Traffic Light,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-107">p. 107</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong> CD 4-23</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Way Down in the Schoolyard,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-50">p. 50</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 2-21</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">We're All Gonna Shine Tonight,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-240">p. 240</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 8-27</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">What Do Animals Need?</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-288">p. 288</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 10-34</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">When the Saints Go Marching In,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-178">p. 178</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 6-41</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Who Has Seen the Wind?</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-324">p. 324</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 11-33</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Winter Is Over<em> (L'inverno è passato)</em>,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-400">p. 400</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-2</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>X</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line"><em>Xiao yin chuan</em> (Silver Moon Boat),</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-14">p. 14</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 1-13</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Y</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Yankee Doodle,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-405">p. 405</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 15-13</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
    <level2>
        <h2>Z</h2>
        <list type="pl">
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-330">p. 330</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 12-4</strong></span>
            </li>
            <li>
                <span class="index-line">Zudio,</span>
                <span class="index-pg"><a href="#p-269">p. 269</a></span>
                <span class="index-loc"><strong>CD 9-35</strong></span>
            </li>
        </list>
    </level2>
</level1>
    

Alternative Markup of Levels

This section demonstrates markup with an alternative to the use of the level1-level6 hierarchy of tags, to identify the major structures of a book and the h1-h6 tags to mark the headings of those structures. An alternative to using this markup would be to use the <level> tag along with an optional (but strongly recommended) attribute called "depth," which indicates the absolute level of the structure being tagged. An <hd> tag identifies the heading inside each of these levels. Whereas the level1-level6 tags can only mark a total of six levels, the level tag can be used recursively; that is, it can be used to mark any number of levels.

In these guidelines, the tags <level1> + <h1>, <level2> + <h2>, etc., are used throughout, but <level> + <hd> may be used, for instance, if more than six levels of nesting are required.

NOTE: Either numbered (<level1> through <level6>) OR unnumbered (<level>) level tags may be used, but they must not be used together.

Markup

<level> should be used recursively to identify all structural elements in the book.

Syntax

<level depth="n">
  <hd>...</hd>
    <!-- ... -->
</level>

Examples

Example 1


<level depth="1" class="part">
    <hd>Part 1...</hd>
    <level depth="2" class="chapter">
        <hd>Chapter 1...</hd>
        <level depth="3" class="section">
            <hd>Section 1...</hd>
            <!-- ... -->
        </level>
        <!-- ... -->
    </level>
    <!-- ... -->
</level>