Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.


A-D search for term

Analog To Digital. The process of converting an analog audio signal, usually recorded on magnetic tape, into a digital representation for use within a computer. An analog recording may have structure indicated by low-frequency index tones, and an A-D conversion system may capture that information to automatically generate structured markup.

Ambulant search for term

An open source SMIL player created by CWI in the Netherlands. As of version 3.0, AMIS embeds Ambulant internally and uses it to play SMIL documents.

AMIS search for term
An acronym for Adaptive Multimedia Information System. This software for playing DAISY 2.02 and DAISY 3-2005 books is free and open source. It runs on Windows. It is composed of modules, each written in C++; some are cross-platform while others rely on MFC and therefore Windows-only.
API search for term

application programming interface

Application search for term

Either a program that does something (formats, sorts, imports, etc.) with XML or a set of markup tags created with XML. HTML, for example, is an application of SGML, defined with an SGML DTD.

ASCII search for term

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. See

Attribute search for term

A source of additional information about an element. Attribute values may be fixed in the DTD or listed as namevalue pairs (name="value") in the start tag of an element.

Audio Book search for term

A recording of a human voice reading or synthetic speech rendering of a book.

Audio clipping search for term

Clipping occurs when an audio device tries to output a signal whose amplitude is greater than its maximum value, as a result it provides this maximum value as output, distorting waveform at upper end.

Audio NCX search for term

Refers to a DAISY book that contains the complete book as synchronized audio, plus a table of contents (which could include page numbers, footnote lists, etc). This term does not refer to a specific version of the DAISY standard.

Audio normalization search for term

Process of increasing or decreasing the amplitude of an entire audio signal so that the resulting peak amplitude reaches the desired value.

Authorization object search for term

An authorization object is a data object that transmits the content decryption keys and rights expression for a single book to a reading system. The content decryption keys are secured within the authorization object by encrypting them with some key known to the reading system. This authorization encryption key is identified by name in the authorization object, and is presumed to be stored somewhere in the reading system. If the reading system does not have the named key, it must acquire it, most likely via a key exchange object.

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Bit depth search for term

Describes the number of bits used to store information about each sample while analog to digital conversion. More is bit depth, better is quality of signal. Typical values used for audio signals are 8 bit, 16 bit and 24 bit.

Block Elements (Structures) search for term

Block structures are discrete segments of text that are often separated from surrounding text by blank lines, indentation, etc. The most common block structure is the paragraph.

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C++ search for term

An object-oriented programming language featuring a combination of high-level and low-level language features. An advantage is that it can be used on nearly every existing platform. However, the development and maintenance costs are often higher than with more modern languages.

CAG search for term

Composite Application Guidance: originally known as Prism, and sometimes called CompositeWPF. An modular architecture recommendation for .NET applications, for which there is a reference implementation called the CAL.

CAL search for term

Composite Application Library: the reference implementation of the CAG. See CAG, Prism, CompositeWPF

CDATA search for term

Character data information in a document that should not be parsed at all. This allows the use of the markup characters & <, and > within the text, even though no elements or entities may appear in the section. CDATA declarations may appear in attributes, and CDATA-marked sections may appear in documents.

Child elements search for term

An element directly nested inside another element. In <FIRST><SECOND></FIRST>, the SECOND element is the child element of FIRST element.

CompositeWPF search for term

A development library for Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), now known as Prism.

CSS search for term

Cascading Style Sheets [CSS] is a mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing, formatting) to HTML or XML documents.

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DAISY search for term
Digital Accessible Information System
DAISY 2.02 search for term

The DAISY 2.02 Specification is the standard for the DAISY Digital Talking Book (DTB) format which was a formal recommendation approved in February 2001. The DAISY 2.02 format is based on the W3C defined SGML (ISO 8879) applications XHTML 1.0 and SMIL 1.0. Using this framework, a talking book format is presented which enables navigation within a sequential and hierarchical structure consisting of (marked-up) text synchronized with audio. It superseded the DAISY 2.01 Specification and has since itself been superseded by the current DAISY Standard, DAISY 3, Release 2005 (officially, the ANSI/NISO Z39.86-2005 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book).

DAISY 2002 search for term

Approved March 6, 2002, by the American National Standards Institute, the 2002 release of the DAISY 3 Standard is the superseded version of the ANSI/NISO Z39.86 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book. It was superseded by DAISY 3, Release 2005.

DAISY 3 search for term

Formally the ANSI/NISO Z39.86-2005 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book, DAISY 3, Release 2005 supersedes the 2002 release of the Standard. This Standard defines the format and content of the electronic file set that comprises a DAISY digital talking book (DTB) and establishes a limited set of requirements for DAISY DTB playback devices.

DAISY Lion search for term

A web-based localization system for creation of language packs for DAISY applications. Users log on to a website and enter translations of given words and phrases. If the target application is self-voicing, they may upload audio that corresponds to that particular word or phrase. The finished collection of text and audio materials is transformed into a language pack for the target application. The DAISY Lion is written in Python.

DAISY media search for term

Any type of DAISY content, i.e. books, magazines, published timetables, health publications, emergency preparedness materials, etc. The three possible types of DAISY media are: 1. audio content with navigation 2. multimedia content (full text + audio + images) with navigation 3. e-text (text only) content with navigation.

DAISY OKĀ® search for term

A designation of conformance to the DAISY Standard which outlines the required functionality and advanced features that describe and define both a conforming DAISY Reading System (player) and a conforming DAISY DTB.

DAISY Pipeline search for term

The DAISY Pipeline is an open source DTB and XML-oriented transformation tool designed to be used in both server-side and desktop environments. It is a suite of cross platform tools developed by the DAISY Consortium to meet ever-increasing production and conversion demands and to also support distribution of accessible content.

DAISY Structure Guidelines search for term

These Guidelines developed by the DAISY Consortium provide information on the correct usage and application of DAISY XML (the DTBook XML element set) in the creation of DAISY media. The elements and their relationships are defined, and examples of correct markup are provided. The 2008 release supersedes previous versions.

DAISY XML search for term

The DTBook XML element set which makes up DAISY media.

DAISY/NIMAS search for term

NIMAS is the federally-mandated U.S. National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard which identifies the minimum set of required elements from the DAISY/NISO Z39.86 Standard (the DAISY 3 Standard) which make up the NIMAS Standard. The required electronic format is DTBook; NIMAS requirements conform to the DTBook DTD, upon which the DAISY Standard is based.

DAISY/NISO Standard search for term

Another term for the DAISY 3 Standard, formally the ANSI/NISO Z39.86-2005 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book.

DAP search for term

Digital Audio Project

Decibel search for term

Logarithmic expression of the ratio between two signal power, voltage, or current levels. Decibel is frequently used as an unit for measuring sound intensity.

Delivery media search for term

The physical media used to distribute DAISY media to the end user.

Document type declaration search for term

In valid documents, the declaration that connects a document to its document type definition. The declaration may connect to an external file or include the definition within itself.

DOM search for term

A means of addressing elements and attributes in a document from a processing application or scripts. The W3C has a Document Object Model Working Group that is developing a standard model for HTML and XML documents. See

Double Byte Characters search for term

Asian characters, for example, require two bytes to represent single characters. This is a common term used to describe computers' international representation of thousands of characters.

DRM search for term

Digital Rights Management (DRM) normally refers to the technological measures applied to digital content that grant specific rights. DRM refers broadly to any strategy or tool that is used to control who can access digital content and how they can use it. DRM might be as simple as putting a copyright notice on a document, or it might go much farther and encrypt a document with a special code or key required to access the content. Encryption is an example of a Technological Protection Measure (TPM) which is a kind of DRM, but the terms are often used interchangeably.

DTB search for term

The Digital Talking Book content data set that complies with the specifications in the DAISY Standard. The Standard for DAISY Digital Talking Books, (DTBs) was developed to replace and improve upon analogue tape technology which was used to provide accessible audio productions of print materials to people unable to read standard print.

DTBook search for term

The XML element set (dtbook.dtd) that defines the markup for the textual content of a Digital Talking Book (DTB).

DTD search for term

The Document Type Definition file contains machine- and human-readable rules that define allowable XML markup for a particular application. It is a set of rules for document construction which lies at the hearts of all SGML development and all valid XML document construction. Processing applications and authoring tools rely on DTDs to inform them of the 'parts' required by a particular document type. A document with a DTD may be validated against the definition (DTD).

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E-text search for term

Text-based information in a digital human-readable format that is read using an electronic device.

eBook search for term

An electronic publication or electronic book usually (but not necessarily) a digital media version of a print publication. There are many Ebooks formats, some of which have DRM and some of which must be read on a specific eBook reader.

Eclipse search for term

Eclipse is an open source community, whose projects are focused on building an open development platform and are hosted by the non-profit Eclipse Foundation. Eclipse is best known for the Eclipse IDE, a greatly extensible multi-language integrated software development environment written primarily in Java.

Eclipse RCP search for term

Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) is a platform for building and deploying desktop software applications. The DAISY Pipeline GUI is based on Eclipse RCP.

Element search for term

An element is a matched pair of tags (opening and closing), the attributes in the start tag (opening tag), and all textual content and tags contained between the opening and end (closing) tags. An element can also be a self-closing tag and its attributes (see Empty Element). They are the fundamental logical units of an XML document.

Empty element search for term
An element that has no textual content. An empty element may be indicated by a start tag (opening tag) and end tag (closing tag) placed next to each other () or by a start tag that ends with /> (). Empty elements may contain attributes only.
End tag search for term
A tag that closes an element. An end tag follows the syntax , where Name matches the element name declared in the start tag.
Entity search for term

A reference to other data that often acts as an abbreviation or a shortcut. By declaring entities, developers can avoid entering the same information in a document or DTD repetitively.

EPUB search for term

EPUB is the name and .epub is the file extension of an XML format for reflowable digital books and publications. .epub is composed of three open standards, the Open Publication Structure (OPS), Open Packaging Format (OPF) and Open Container Format (OCF), produced by the IDPF. See

Escapeable search for term

Feature of DAISY players where a reader can jump out of a structure such as a table or nested sidebar. They then continue reading the main content of the publication.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) search for term

A widely adopted W3C recommendation that provides a much simpler set of rules for markup than SGML, while offering more flexibility that HTML. See

Extensible Style Language (XSL) search for term

A style sheet standard submitted by Microsoft, ArborText, and Inso Corporation to the W3C. An XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics. XSLT is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents. See

External DTD subset search for term

The portion of a document type definition that is stored outside of the document. External DTDs are convenient for storing document type definitions that will be used by multiple documents, allowing them to share a centrally managed definition.

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Fragment Identifier search for term

A means to address a named place in a document. For reference within the current document, the reference part is to a named target and begins with &quot

Full-text/Full-audio search for term

Refers to a DAISY book that contains all the text (instead of just the table of contents) and corresponding synchronized audio. This term does not refer to a specific version of the DAISY standard.

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General entity search for term

An entity for use in document content. When used in documents, the name of a general entity must be preceded by an ampersand (&) and should be followed by a semicolon.

Global navigation search for term

Movement to user-selected portions of a document, with that movement enabled by the NCX. Navigation targets may be headings representing the hierarchical structure of the document or specific points such as pages, notes, sidebars, etc.

GUI search for term

GUI stands for graphical user interface, a type of user interface item that allows people to interact with programs through graphical icons and and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces.

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HTML search for term

Hypertext Markup Language is the language of the web and the most popular markup language in use today, HTML is an application of SGML. HTML is one of the foundations of web development, providing formatting and basic structure to documents for presentation via browser applications. See

HTML Editor search for term

A software program for editing HTML pages. With an HTML editor you can add elements, tables, font size, layout and color to a HTML document like using a word processor. An HTML editor will display the page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the page (WYSIWYG).

HTTP search for term

Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the protocol that governs communications between clients and servers on the World Wide Web. HTTP allows clients to send requests to servers, which reply with an appropriate document or an error message.

HTTPS search for term

HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure is the same as HTTP but provides secure Internet communication using SSL.

Hyperlink search for term

A pointer to another document. Most often a pointer to another web page. A hyperlink is for a hotlink or a link, and sometimes called a hypertext connection to another document page.

Hypermedia search for term

An extension to hypertext to include graphics and audio.

Hypertext search for term

Hypertext is text that is cross-linked to other documents in such a way that the reader can see related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol. (See also hyperlink)

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I/O Interface search for term

Input/Output Interface

IAB search for term

The Internet Architecture Board is a council that makes decisions about Internet standards. (See also W3C)

IDPF search for term

The International Digital Publishing Forum (formerly Open eBook Forum.) The International Trade and Standards organization for the eBook and ePublishing Industries. http://www/

IDPF Specifications search for term

Get EPUB specifications from the International Digital Publishing Forum, a trade and standards association for the digital publishing industry.

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) search for term

A subgroup of IAB that focuses on solving technical problems on the Internet.

Index point search for term

The initial position of a text element which can be searched for, for example, a word.

Instance search for term

The actual use of an element or document type in a document, as opposed to its definition. An instance may also refer to an entire document. A document may be an instance of a DTD if it can be validated under that DTD.

Internal DTD subset search for term

The portion of a document type definition that appears inside the document to which it applies. Internal DTD subsets can be hard to manage, but provide developers an easy way to test out new features or develop DTDs without disrupting other documents.

ISO search for term

The International Organization for Standardization, an international standard-setting body. See

ISP search for term

Internet Service Provider. An organization that provides or sells access to the Internet to invidivuals and other organizations.

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Java search for term

Java refers to a number of computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems that together provide a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform environment. The Java programming language is the primary way to produce code for the Java environment.

JPEG search for term

JPEG is an acronym for Joint Photographic Expert Group. JPEG is a lossy compression technique for color images. Although it can reduce files sizes to about 5% of their normal size, some detail is lost in the compression.

JPEG file suffixes are .jpg or .jpeg.

JSP (Java Server Pages) search for term

A Java based technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages.

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Keyboard Equivalents search for term

These are keyboard options that are equal to a mouse click. CTRL+O, for example, is equal to using the mouse to open a file. Keyboard equivalents also known as key combinations, or hot keys, or accelerator keys. Normally these are two keys that are pressed together to perform a function. These are often found in pull-down menus and take the place of going through the menu by mouse clicks. These keys can also replace the need for pressing icons with a mouse.

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LAME search for term

High quality MPEG Audio Layer III (MP3) encoder licensed under the LGPL

LaTeX search for term

LaTeX is a non-XML document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting system, notably used to produce postscript or PDF documents. LaTeX is particularly popular in academia, especially in mathematics and science thanks to a good support of scientific formulae.

Legacy Data search for term

Data that was produced with previous technologies, for example analog recordings on tape are the legacy data.

Link search for term

A reference (link) from some point in one hypertext document to (some point in) another document or another place in the same document. A browser usually displays a hyperlink in some distinguishing way, e.g. in a different color, font or style. When the user activates the link (e.g. by clicking on it with the mouse), the browser will display the target of the link.

Local navigation search for term

Movement within a document at a granularity finer than that provided by the NCX. For example, navigation by paragraph or sentence, or within a table or nested list. Precise local navigation can be controlled by the textual content file or the SMIL file(s). The granularity is limited by the degree to which the textual content file has been marked up or the level to which synchronization has been applied in the SMIL file(s). Time-based movement through a document (e.g., fast-forward and rewind as on an analog cassette, or time jumps by specified intervals) may also be implemented.

LpStudio/Pro search for term

LpStudio/Pro is DTB production software developed by commercial companies through a pre-licensing agreement with the DAISY Consortium. It is only available to DAISY Member Organizations and their representatives.

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Manifest search for term

A component of the Package File, the Manifest lists all files included in the DTB.

Markup search for term

Structural information stored in the same file as the content. Traditionally, structural information is separated from the content and isolated in elements (defined with tags) and entities.

Markup declaration search for term

The contents of document type declarations, which are used to define the elements, attributes, entities, and notations. They specify the kinds of markup that will be legal in a given document.

MathML search for term

Mathematical Markup Language is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. It is a recommendation of the W3C math working group and aims at integrating mathematical formulas into World Wide Web documents. See

MathML in DAISY search for term

MathML in DAISY is the first official Modular Extension of the DAISY Standard. See

mdf search for term

The Markup Definition File (.mdf) contains a listing of all of the elements and attributes, with their associated values, that are to be used as synchronization points with the XHTML source in a project. This list of elements is used to identify and select portions of the source XHTML files for the generation of the ncc.html file and .smil files for a project. Also stored in this file is information about the hierarchy associated with each type of element.

Media Unit search for term

A single object on which a DTB is stored for distribution to the reader. For example, a single CD-ROM disk.

Metadata search for term

An element used to describe the content of a document, literally, 'data about data'. The metadata information describes and identifies the book or computer document for digital indexing and archival purposes. The end user is not necessarily aware of its presence.

MFC search for term
An acronym for Microsoft Foundation Classes . This is a toolkit that provides Windows programmers with the necessary classes for creating Windows applications. MFC has been succeeded by Winforms and WPF, both part of Microsoft's .NET framework.
Modular Extensions search for term

An implementation of an XML vocabulary that extends the DAISY/NISO Standard so that it can address additional needs. Some extensions that have been mentioned are for mathematics, video support, testing, workbooks, music, dictionaries, chemistry, searching and more. See

MP3 search for term

.mp3 is the file extension for MPEG, audio layer 3. Layer 3 is one of three MPEG coding schemes (layer 1, layer 2 and layer 3) for the compression of audio signals. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and psycho-acoustic compression to remove all superfluous information (more specifically, the redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal that the human ear does not hear). It also adds a MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) that implements a filter bank, increasing the frequency resolution 18 times higher than that of layer 2.

MPEG search for term

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) was formed by the ISO to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.

Multi-volume search for term

Refers to a DAISY book that is composed of multiple volumes, each volume being its own DAISY book. DAISY tools are expected to treat the collection of volumes as one book in regards to features offered, except that the user may be asked to change physical media (e.g. CD-ROMs) in order to load the correct volume.

Multimedia search for term

Multimedia is a term which describes a presentation that combines more than one media. In the DTB the combination of text and audio is the primary multimedia combination.

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Name characters search for term

Letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, and full stops. (Full stops in Latin character sets are periods.)

Name token search for term

Any string composed of name characters.

NCC search for term

The Navigation Control Center is the main navigational tool for end users and also for producers using LpStudio/Pro and Sigtuna DAR 3. In MyStudio PC the ncc.html file is generated when the project is built; it is not present in the project during the production process.

NCX search for term

In the DAISY 3 Standard, the NCC evolved into the Navigation Control file for XML applications (NCX). The NCX provides navigation using the identified elements of documents tagged to the dtbook DTD. Richer structuring capability is one of the objectives of that DTD. Each navigation point in the NCX is linked through the SMIL file to the corresponding location in the audio and XML textual content files, providing the reader efficient and flexible access to the hierarchical structure of a DTB as well as direct access to selected elements such as page numbers, notes, figures, etc.

NIMAC search for term

The National Instructional Materials Access Center is a U.S. federally-funded, national electronic file repository that makes NIMAS files available for the production of core print instructional materials in specialized formats. See

NIMAS search for term

In the U.S., the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (pronounced NYE-mas) outlines a set of consistent and valid XML-based source files created by K-12 curriculum publishers or other content producers. See

NISO search for term

National Information Standards Organization. A non-profit standards organization that develops, maintains and publishes technical standards related to bibliographic and library applications. See

Noise level search for term

The noise level (noise threshold) is the level of background noise and ambient sound in the recording environment. When recording with MyStudio PC, depending on the background noise level, a 'High', 'Normal' or 'Low' noise level can be set within the system. There is no calibration process as there is with LpStudio/Pro and Sigtuna DAR 3.

Notation search for term

An XML structure that identifies the type of content contained by an element and suggesting a viewer to present it.

Note reference search for term

This is a link to a marked footnote, endnote or some other piece of text in a document.

NSIS search for term

"Nullsoft Scriptable Installation System". This is a scripting language and compiler aimed at creating installation packages for software applications. It is free and open source.

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OASIS search for term

OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) is a not-for-profit consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. One of the standards developped by OASIS is the OpenDocument Format (ODF) for representing electronic office document.

Obi search for term

an open source DAISY/NISO authoring tool for producing audio ncx DAISY books. Obi is easy to use, accessible and internationalized.

OCF search for term

The Open Container Format (OCF) is part of the EPUB Standard, produced by the IDPF. The OCF uses the ZIP specification to bring the various files needed to make a conforming EPUB publication into a single file, hence the term container.

ODF search for term

The OpenDocument Format (ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. ODF is an OASIS standard, based on the format originally created and implemented by the open source office suite.

ODT search for term

OpenDocument Text files are word processing documents complying to the ODF specification.

OEBF search for term

The Open eBook Forum&trade;is the original name of the IDPF. It was founded in 1999 to develop specifications for the eBook industry.

Office Open XML search for term

Office Open XML (also referred to as OOXML or Open XML) is an XML-based file format originally developed by Microsoft for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents.

Open Source search for term

Open Source is a term that applies to software that is created and maintained using a license that makes the source code available for modification. There are a variety of licensing schemes that this term applies to. For example: General Public License (GPL) or the Lesser General Public License (LGPL), there are many different types of licenses that are open source.

OPF search for term

Open eBook Forum Package File. See Package File.

OSGi search for term

The OSGi framework is a modular system for Java that implements a complete and dynamic component model, and facilitates the development of service-oriented architectures in Java.

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Package File search for term

The Open eBook Forum defines a specification to describe all the files within a conformingOpen Publication Structure. This is a &quot;packing list or manifest" of the files. It is one of the three specifications that make up the EPUB specification.

Parameter entity search for term

An entity used to represent information within the context of a document type definition. Parameter entities may be used to link the content of additional DTD files to a DTD, or as an abbreviation for frequently repeated declarations. Parameter entities are distinguished from general entities by their use of a percent sign (%) rather than a parent element of the SECOND element.

Parsed character data (#PCDATA) search for term

Parsed character data is text that will be examined by the parser for entities and markup. Parsed character data should not contain any &, <, or > characters. These need to be represented by the &, <, and > entities, respectively.

PCM search for term

acronym for Pulse Coded Modulation, an uncompressed digital signal obtained as a first step in analog to digital conversion. PCM is used in wav files.

Peak meter search for term

A measuring instrument ( mostly visual) that indicates the instantaneous level of an audio signal (amplitude) that is passing through it. Amplitude is represented by rising and falling bars, frequently used in DAISY production tools for input signal monitoring.

PEF search for term

The Portable Embosser Format (PEF) is an XML format for representing braille books, accurately and unambiguously, regardless of language, location, embosser settings, braille code and computer environment. PEF is a specification developped within the Braille in DAISY project.

Phrase detection search for term

A system that detects a pause in the speaker's voice and somehow marks that time for later use.

Playback search for term

With regard to implementations, playback refers to the methods used to render the DTB content. Playback may include audio, Braille, large print, and synthetic speech as appropriate for the content and as supported by the playback system.

Playback System search for term

The hardware/software platform that renders the contents of a DTB to a reader. Synonymous with Player and reading system.

Player search for term

See Playback System.

Print disabled search for term

The term was coined by George Kerscher in 1989 to describe persons with disabilities who cannot read print. The definition is: A person who cannot effectively read print because of a visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability.

When used as an adjective, it should be hyphenated, as in print-disabled person. When used as a collective noun, it should not be hyphenated.

Prism search for term


Processing application search for term

An application that takes the output generated by a parser (it may include a parser, or be a parser itself) and does something with it. That something may include presentation, calculation, or anything else that seems appropriate.

Processing instruction search for term

Directions that allow XML authors to send instructions directly to a processing that may be outside the native capacities of XML. A processing instruction is differentiated from normal element markup by question marks after the opening < and before the closing > (i.e. <? Instruction ?> ). The XML declaration is itself a processing instruction.

Prolog search for term

the opening part of a document, containing the XML declaration and any document type declarations or markup declarations needed to process the document.

Python search for term

A high-level, general-purpose programming language that is easy to read and allows for relatively fast application development. Its standard library is quite large and exemplifies Python's "batteries included" philosophy, meaning many of the tools required for common actions are there by default. In addition, it is a multi-paradigm language, allowing both object-oriented and structural programming approaches in addition to others.

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Query search for term

Technically a query is a mapping from structures of one vocabulary to structures of another vocabulary. A Query language such as SQL is a computer language used to make queries into databases and information systems. A query string, in the World Wide Web, is an optional part of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that follows the first question mark (?). A Web search query is a query entered by users into web search engines.

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reading system search for term
The hardware/software platform that renders the contents of a digital publication to a reader. This term is normally associated with EPUB and DAISY publications.
Recursion search for term

A programming technique in which a function may call itself. Recursive programming is especially well-suited to parsing nested markup structures.

Reference Implementation search for term

In computing, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is a software example of a specification. These are intended to help others implement their own version of the specification or find problems during the creation of a specification.

Root element search for term

The first element in a document. The root element is not contained by any other elements and forms the base of the tree structure created by parsing the nested elements.

RSS search for term
RSS (most commonly translated as Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works, such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video, in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a feed, web feed, or channel) is an XML file with a suffix of .rss or .xml and is signified by the RSS Feed icon.
RTF search for term

Rich Text Format, a proprietary document file format developed by Microsoft for cross-platform document interchange.

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Sampling rate search for term

The rate at which samples of an analog signal are taken in order to be converted into digital form. It is expressed in Hertz (hz). Higher the sampling rate, higher is quality of digital signal obtained from conversion.

Screen Reader search for term

A screen reader is software that attempts to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen. This interpretation is then re-presented to the user with text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille output device.

Scrubbing search for term

Ability to move forward/reverse in the audio while listening to the audio. Similar to cueing during wind/rewind on analog recorders.

self-certified search for term
self-voicing search for term

A tool that provides built-in audio narration of the controls, meaning that no additional screen-reading software is required.

Semantic structure search for term

The relationship between a document's content and its structure.

SGML search for term

see Standard Generalized Mark-up Language

Side Information search for term

The elements within a document which are not part of the main body text. Often called side bars, notes, marginalia, margin notes.

Simple link search for term

A link that includes its target locator in an HREF attribute.

Skippable search for term

Feature of DAISY playback where readers can skip audio playback of certain types of book elements, such as page number announcements, footnotes, sidebars, and producer notes.

SMIL search for term

The Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language [SMIL] is a W3C recommendation (SMIL 2.0) used in this standard to control the synchronized presentation of content in multiple media.

Spanning search for term
This refers to extending across media , e.g. a project may not fit on one CD-ROM so it is spanned to three CD-ROMs.
Spine search for term

A component of the Package File, the Spine lists in default reading order the SMIL files included in the DTB.

SQL search for term

SQL (Structured Query Language) is the most widely used language for relational databases.

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) search for term

The parent language of HTML and XML. SGML provides a complex set of rules for defining document structures, HTML uses structures defined under that set of rules, whereas XML provide a subset of the rules for defining document structures. SGML is formally standardized as ISO/IEC 8879-1986, although a series of later amendments have continued its development.

Start tag search for term

The opening tag that begins an element. The general syntax for a start tag is <Name attributes>, where Name is the name of the element being defined, and attributes is a set of name-value pairs. All start tags in XML must either have end tags or use empty element syntax, <Name attributes>.

Style sheet search for term

Style sheets describe and define the presentation of a document, and can be used for visual and audio presentation. Style sheets may be stored in separate files from the documents they describe. See CSS.

SVG search for term

Scalable Vector Graphics

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language search for term

SMIL supports the integration of independent multimedia objects into a synchronized multimedia set. See

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Target population search for term

The target population consists of blind, visually impaired, physically handicapped, learning-disabled, and otherwise print-disabled readers.

Text-only search for term

Refers to a DAISY book that contains all the text (instead of just the table of contents) and no audio. This term does not refer to a specific version of the DAISY standard.

Textual Content File search for term

The content of the subject document in a character set specified by ISO 10646 to which XML markup valid to the DTBook DTD has been applied.

TSM search for term

Time-scale modification varies playback rate (both slower and faster than real time) while maintaining constant pitch.

TTS search for term
An acronym for Text To Speech. A TTS system, also called a speech synthesizer, converts text into artificial human speech.
Type 4 DAISY DTB search for term

"Synchronized project" (full text and audio)

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Unicode search for term

Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. A standard for international character encoding. Unicode support characters that are 2 bytes wide rather than the 1 byte currently supported by most systems, allowing it to include 65,536 characters rather than the 256 available to 1-byte systems. See

URI search for term

A Uniform Resource Identifier is a compact string of characters for identifying resources: documents, images, audio files, etc. Within a DTB, URIs are most likely to appear as attribute values for various XML elements, used as a way of identifying other documents or files either in whole or part. A URI may include a fragment identifier suffix beginning with &quot

URL search for term

A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. In popular usage and in many technical documents and verbal discussions it is often incorrectly used as a synonym for URI. In popular language, a URI is also referred to as a Web address.

User Agent search for term

Web user agents range from Web browsers to search engine crawlers (spiders), as well as mobile phones, screen readers and braille browsers used by people with disabilities.

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Valid search for term

A document is valid if it conforms to a declared document type definition (DTD) and meets the conditions for well-formedness. All elements, attributes, and entities must be declared in the DTD, and all data types must match their definition's requirement.

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W3C search for term

The World Wide Web Consortium, the standard body responsible for many of the standard key to the functionality if the World Wide Web, including HTML, XML, and Cascading Style Sheets. The W3C site includes the latest public versions of their standards as well as other information about the web and standard processes. See

WAI search for term

Web Accessibility Initiative. The WAI is the international portion of the W3C with the goal of making the web usable by all persons. See

Wav search for term

A specific type of digital audio sound file format developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. An industry standard audio file format. File extension is .wav.

Well-formed search for term

A well-formed XML document is syntactically correct. It does not have angle brackets that are not part of tags. (Entity references are used to embed angle brackets in an XML document.) In addition, all tags have an ending tag or are themselves self-ending. In addition, in a well-formed document, all tags are fully nested. They never overlap. A well-formed document can be processed. A well-formed document may not be valid however. To determine that, a validating parser and a DTD are required.

WIPO search for term

The World Intellectual Property Organization is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations. See

WYSIWYG search for term
WYSIWYG is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get (pronounced Wizziwig). The term is used in computing to describe a system in which content displayed during editing appears very similar to the final output.

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XML search for term

The Extensible Markup Language [XML] is a standardized language for marking up files containing structured information.

XML declaration search for term

The processing instruction at the top of an XML document. It begins with <?XML, includes a version identifier, required markup declaration, and encoding identifier, and closes with ?>. (The XML declaration may be case-sensitive at some point. The standard at present is unclear on this issue.)

XPath search for term

XPath is a W3C recommendation for query language for selecting nodes from an XML document. In addition, XPath may be used to compute values (e.g., strings, numbers, or Boolean values) from the content of an XML document.

XProc search for term

XProc is a W3C specification for an XML Pipeline Language. It describes operations to be performed on XML documents as a sequence of computational units called XProc steps.

XSL search for term

The Extensible Stylesheet Language is a series of recommendations by the Worldwide Web Consortium that describes how XML documents can be transformed and rearranged [XSLT], then formatted [XSL] for screen, handheld device, paper, or audio presentation.

XSLT search for term

A language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents. [XSLT] is designed for use as part of XSL. See XSL.

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YAGD search for term

Yet Another Glossary Definition (just because the letter Y needed one)

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Z39.86 search for term

The official NISO number assigned to the Digital Talking Book Standard.

ZedNext search for term
An affectionate name for the next version of the DAISY Standard (officially, The ANSI/NISO Z39.86 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book).

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